Mechanism of the onset of pain syndrome

Pain may appear due to a crack in the disk
The development of the pathological process leads to the loss of intervertebral discs of elasticity and damping qualities. When the disease progresses, disks appear in the discs, the fibrous ring begins to bulge. Over time, hernias can form. Next to the intervertebral discs are nerve sprouts, blood vessels, spinal cord. Deformed vertebrae and hernia traumatize the nerve processes, which leads to their inflammation and provokes back pain, often radiating to other parts of the body.

The physiological mechanism of the pain syndrome in osteochondrosis is not fully understood. In a simplified form, it can be represented in the following form: the skin contains many nerve endings that react to any stimuli: injections, pressure, chemical factors, etc. Intensive exposure causes tissue damage, leading to irritation of the endings of nerve fibers – pain receptors. Signals from them are transmitted in the dorsal, and then in the brain, perceiving them as pain. Sensations in this case arise both in damage to nerve receptors and in damage to the nerves. The nature, localization and perception of pain vary depending on a number of factors. For example: degenerative changes lead to the infringement of the spinal nerve in the lumbar region, and the pain is felt in the foot – where the nerve begins. If the patient is concentrated on his feelings, besides is in a state of despair or depression, the pain can be subjectively perceived as more acute.

The nature of the pain syndrome

Pain in the early stage of osteochondrosis is rare and does not differ in high intensity. As the disease develops, they appear more often and can become permanent and strong enough.

For later stages, acute and chronic pain, stiffness in the back, limitation of movements are characteristic. Patients feel constant fatigue. Expressed painful sensations, often giving in the limbs, appear when the nerve root is compressed. Patients may feel tingling, numbness. Often this condition is accompanied by muscle weakness and atrophy.

Painful sensations in case of cervical damage

With cervical osteochondrosis:

  • pain in the neck;
  • headache;
  • facial pain;
  • pain in the hands, often accompanied by numbness of the fingers;
  • pain in the shoulder joint with limited mobility;
  • cardialgia.

Neurological manifestations of alcohol withdrawal syndrome

Refusal of alcohol after a long reception creates a great strain on the nervous system, so the patient begins to tremble his hands, there may be convulsions and pseudoparalities. Because of the increased sensitivity of the skin, the patient is sweating, not related to the temperature indoors or outdoors.

 Physiological manifestations

With alcohol withdrawal syndrome, the digestive, genitourinary and cardiovascular systems suffer. As a result, the following symptoms appear:

  • upset stomach, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and a loose stool;
  • decreased sexual activity;
  • frequent urge to urinate

It is worth noting that the use of alcohol over a long period of time causes physiological changes in the myocardium. As a result, a sharp refusal of alcohol can lead to cardiac arrest.

Abstinence in the abolition of hormonal drugs

A sharp discontinuation of taking hormone therapy drugs causes a withdrawal syndrome, which can be accompanied by various symptoms, depending on the principle of the drug’s effect on the body. First of all, the disease, which was treated with hormonal drugs, makes itself felt in a more severe form. In addition, the patient may develop adrenal insufficiency syndrome, progressing very quickly and often leading to cardiac arrest. This kind of abstinence is very rare, as doctors prescribe to their patients a phased withdrawal from taking hormonal drugs, gradually reducing the dosage.

Abstinence in refusal of antidepressants

Antidepressants are widely used in psychiatry for the treatment of various disorders. However, they have a strong influence on the nervous system. Therefore, the withdrawal syndrome of “phenazepam” or any other similar drug leads to a sharp deterioration in well-being and various problems throughout the body.

The duration of abstinence

Many people are interested in the question of how long the withdrawal syndrome lasts. Is it dangerous or not? However, there is no unequivocal answer, since each organism is individual and differently tolerates a refusal to accept substances that caused dependence. The duration of the syndrome is also affected by the time that the body needs to remove toxins. Despite the fact that there are no exact figures, nevertheless, scientists were able to calculate the approximate duration of abstinence.

The results of the observations are as follows:

  •  with the refusal of alcohol, the duration of withdrawal may range from one week to several months;
  • withdrawal syndrome for refusing to take drugs takes several weeks;
  •  with smoking cessation abstinence can last from several days to several weeks, depending on the length of the smoker’s experience;

withdrawal syndrome, caused by the use of antidepressants, can be felt for three weeks. According to doctors, abstinence is much more easily tolerated with the support of the family. The substituted shoulder of close people adds determination and increases the strength of the patient’s will. Therefore, the probability of complete elimination of the dependence increases.

Abstinence in refusal of alcohol

The alcohol withdrawal syndrome can significantly worsen the patient’s well-being. This is accompanied by mental, neurological and somatic abnormalities. The clinical manifestations of abstinence begin 3 days after the complete refusal of alcohol, and the first manifestation is a hangover. In some cases, withdrawal can cause hallucinations, which, in turn, increase the aggressiveness of the patient.

The withdrawal syndrome

Posted on August 8, 2018  in Medical news

The withdrawal syndrome is always the same. This applies to absolutely all cases, regardless of what was caused by addiction. Exception can be considered only those situations when the abstinence is not so bright. The main symptoms of withdrawal syndrome are:
deterioration of well-being, constant depression, decrease in working capacity;
increased irritability, aggressiveness, apathy, depression;
disruption of normal operation of internal organs, accompanied by shortness of breath, increased palpitations, nausea, digestive system disorders, tremor in the muscles, increased sweating;

a constant desire to accept a substance that has become addictive. Throughout the symptom of withdrawal, the patient is almost nothing else to think about. All of the above manifestations indicate that the patient has developed a withdrawal syndrome. The signs can be both pronounced and less obvious.

When does abstinence begin to manifest?

The manifestations of abstinence can occur at different times and depend on a variety of factors, the main ones being the degree of dependence caused by certain substances. In most cases, abstinence makes itself felt in such terms as: in the case of nicotine addiction, the desire to smoke can occur only one hour after the last smoke break; about whether there is a withdrawal syndrome for alcohol abuse, you can find out in a few hours; Abstinence caused by taking antidepressants is manifested 1-2 days after refusal; when using narcotic substances, the breakdown occurs about a day after the last dose. It is worth noting that when the onset of withdrawal symptoms are manifested not immediately, but gradually.

The withdrawal syndrome is what?

After the completion of taking medications intended to arrest various conditions, the symptoms may return to the patient. In this case, they are manifested with greater force. As a result, the patient’s condition deteriorates significantly, and he may fall into a coma. A similar manifestation is called withdrawal syndrome. This phenomenon was first discovered by doctors when using hormone therapy.
The withdrawal syndrome is an acute manifestation, caused by the way it happens, if you refused to take medication, we did not receive any substances necessary for normal functioning. This is due to the fact that any hormonal drugs have a negative effect on the nervous system, violating the normal psychological and emotional background. If you take such drugs for a long period of time, then the patient may develop a feeling of constant discomfort and depression. Therefore, do not use medication without the advice of a qualified specialist.
The most common drugs and substances that cause dependence and can lead to the development of withdrawal syndrome in refusing to take them are: narcotic substances, for example, cocaine, opium, etc.; psychostimulants and antidepressants; alcohol; nicotine. Each provocateur listed in the list has a different degree of addiction. Therefore, dependence on them develops in a person for a different period of time. For example, addiction develops much more quickly to narcotic substances than to nicotine or alcohol. The most dangerous thing is that such dependence has a detrimental effect on the body. In some cases, there may even be a lethal outcome. A frequent picture is the syndrome of hormonal ointment withdrawal, which are widely used in gynecology for the treatment of various diseases. The abolition of their application leads to hormonal failure, and consequently, to abstinence.

Treatment of dependence on Tramadol

Drug dependence on Tramadol is treated by the same methods as opium addiction. The patient needs rehabilitation in the medical center.

Regardless of the condition of a person, he is hospitalized. However, this requires personal consent of the patient.

Treatment is carried out in several stages:

General strengthening therapy.
Active drug treatment.
Antiretroviral therapy.
Detoxification lasts 3-4 weeks, during which the patient takes glucose, vitamin-mineral complexes, blood substitutes, nootropics and other drugs. In parallel, symptomatic treatment is performed. If necessary, prescribe analeptics for the normalization of respiratory functions, medications to restore the work of the heart and blood vessels.

An important condition of treatment – a sharp and final refusal to use Tramadol. The withdrawal syndrome, which causes this drug, is removed with clonidine and pyrroxane. To eliminate psychoses, tranquilizers and haloperidol are usually prescribed.

As part of the antinarcotic treatment, the body functions that are damaged as a result of Tramadol’s administration are restored, the behavior of the patient is corrected and the cravings in the drug are suppressed. At this stage, antidepressants and antipsychotics are used, in parallel treatment continues with nootropic drugs.

Also, the patient is affected by psychotherapeutic methods. Individual and collective classes are held in different centers. Hypnosis can be used with the development of aversion to the drug at the subconscious level, acupuncture, electrostimulation.
The longest stage is maintenance therapy, aimed at maintaining the achieved result and preventing breakdowns. After discharge from the medical institution, the patient should continue to attend psychotherapy sessions and take fortified preparations. The duration of anti-relapse treatment can be up to five years.


Consequences of prolonged use of TramadolAfter one year of misuse of Tramadol in humans, bone tissue is significantly weakened. This increases the risk of fractures and related injuries. Loss of teeth and hair can also occur.

If the patient does not throw Tramadol, then, as a rule, he dies within 3-4 years. However, even after a successful rehabilitation, people have the consequences of dependence that they will have to struggle with for the rest of their lives.

After two years of continuous use of the drug, severe consequences develop:

  • epilepsy;
  • toxic hepatitis;
  • dementia;
  • cirrhosis of the liver.

Among other consequences of long-term use of Tramadol, mental abnormalities are noted:

  • alternation of euphoria and depression;
  • bouts of irritability;
  • obsessions;
  • paranoids.

Only a quarter of tramadol addicts survive after undergoing rehabilitation. The rest die from causes that are directly or indirectly related to the consequences of dependence.

According to statistics, most patients die as a result of overdoses that occur during breakdowns. Up to 9% of all those who use this drug commit suicide during withdrawal, slightly less people die from diseases of internal organs. With 3% of patients in a state of drug intoxication, accidents occur that lead to death.

Signs and symptoms of consumption

Signs and symptoms of consumption
Tramadol is a psychoactive drug, so its use primarily causes behavioral abnormalities. They can be different and depend on the personality characteristics of the patient.
In different cases:

  • excessive motor activity or lethargy;
  • drowsiness or insomnia;
  • inability to concentrate;
  • self-isolation and indifference to everything;
  • reluctance to communicate with loved ones;
  • decreased memory and attention;
  • absenteeism of study or work without a clear explanation;
  • acute reaction to criticism;
  • sharp mood swings;
  • falsity and avoidance of direct answers to questions;
  • untidy appearance;
  • the appearance of suspicious acquaintances, jargon;
  • interest in specific music and films;
  • constant requests to borrow money;
  • loss of values.

The dependence on Tramadol can also be recognized by physiological signs. They can also vary depending on the characteristics of the body.

Most often in people who take the drug, there are:

  • enlarged or narrowed pupils;
  • red squirrel eyes;
  • clouded look;
  • pale or reddened skin;
  • rash;
  • slow and incoherent or simply accelerated speech;
  • lack of appetite or gluttony;
  • strong weight loss or a large weight gain;
  • digestive disorders;
  • excessive gesticulation;
  • unstable gait.

Within a month on the background of the reception of Tramadol, the patient’s appetite gradually comes to naught. At the same time, an unquenchable thirst develops.

Within three months of regular use of the drug develops physical, emotional and mental exhaustion. The person becomes more and more sluggish. He is often in a good mood, but laughter can suddenly turn into tears or a flash of aggression.

Because of the increased pressure in the patient, there are more intense headaches, with him there are fainting. Opportunities to learn and work are reduced, because memory worsens, absent-mindedness grows. As a result, a person has to exert more effort to perform the usual actions.

The development of dependence

How does dependence on Tramadol develop? Therapeutic doses of Tramadol are generally not addictive. However, even with a slight excess of it, even after the first use of the drug, both physical and psychological dependence develops.

During three months of regular use, Tramadol is the only or the main drug for a person. If the patient wants to be treated and gets rid of physical dependence, the psychological craving for the drug will still remain. It persists to 10-15 years, so very often failures occur.

Even with the help of detoxification in the hospital it is impossible to completely purify the body of Tramadol. The products of its decay are deduced within 20-25 years.

The process of inpatient treatment itself occurs quite quickly and takes from a week to a month. However, in practice, 75% of people who at least once tried Tramadol, go back to taking the drug for 4-5 years. This in most cases ends with death.

After a dramatic withdrawal of Tramadol, the drug addict experiences the most severe of all possible abstinence symptoms. The break takes 20-25 days.

Hallucinations in the period of the abstinence syndrome do not vanish, but, on the contrary, become more frequent and realistic, the gloominess of their plots increases.

In parallel, the patient manifests other mental disorders:

  • severe depression with suicidal tendencies;
  • aggressiveness;
  • hysteria;
  • irritability.