The syndrome of movement disorders in children of the first year of life may be accompanied by MUSCLE DYSTONIA , in which muscle hypotension alternates with hypertension. At rest, these children show general muscular hypotonia during passive movements. When an attempt is made to actively perform any movement, with positive or negative emotional reactions, muscle tone sharply increases, pathological tonic reflexes become pronounced . These conditions are called ” dystonic attacks “. Most often, muscular dystonia is observed in children who have undergone hemolytic disease as a result of Rh – or ABO – incompatibility. The pronounced syndrome of muscular dystonia makes it practically impossible for a child to develop straightening reflexes of the trunk and balance reactions due to the constantly changing muscle tone. The syndrome of mild transient muscular dystonia does not significantly affect the age-related motor development of the child.
SYNDROME OF MUSCLE HYPERTENSION, HYPERTENSION IN A CHILD, IN CHILDREN, IN THE BREAST, IN NEWBORNS
The syndrome of muscular hypertension is characterized by an increase in resistance to passive movements, limitation of spontaneous and voluntary motor activity, an increase in tendon reflexes, an expansion of their zone, and clonuses of the feet. An increase in muscle tone can prevail in flexor or extensor muscle groups, in the adductor muscles of the thighs, which is expressed in a certain specificity of the clinical picture, however, it is only a relative criterion for topical diagnosis in young children. Due to the incompleteness of the processes of myelination, the symptoms of Babinsky , Oppenheim, Gordon cannot always be considered pathological. Normally, they are mild , unstable and weaken as the child develops, but with an increase in muscle tone they become bright and do not tend to fade.
The severity of the syndrome of muscular hypertension can vary from a slight increase in resistance to passive movements to complete stiffness (posture of decerebral rigidity), when any movement is practically impossible. In these cases, even muscle relaxants are unable to induce muscle relaxation, let alone passive movements. If the syndrome of muscular hypertension is not clearly expressed , does not combine with pathological tonic reflexes and other neurological disorders, its effect on the development of static and locomotor functions may manifest itself in their slight delay at various stages of the first year of life. Depending on in which muscle groups the tone is more increased, the differentiation and final consolidation of certain motor skills will be delayed. So, with an increase in muscle tone in the hands, a delay in the development of the direction of the hands to the object, the capture of the toy, and the manipulation of objects are noted. The development of the grasping ability of the hands is especially impaired. Along with the fact that the child begins to take the toy later, he retains an ulnar grip, or grip with the entire hand , for a long time . The grip with the fingers (forceps) is slow to form and sometimes requires additional stimulation. The development of the protective function of the hands may be delayed, then the balance reactions in the prone position, sitting, standing and walking are also delayed, respectively. With an increase in muscle tone in the legs, the formation of the support reaction of the legs and independent standing is delayed. Children are reluctant to get up on their feet, prefer to crawl, on the support they stand on their toes (on tiptoes) – this is very bad.