The intestine consists of two sections: a thin one (5-7 m long) and a larger one in diameter (1-2 m long). In the intestine, water, trace elements, proteins, fats and carbohydrates are broken down and absorbed into the blood and lymph. Digestion time in the small intestine takes from several hours to several tens. The maximum physiological time for food in the large intestine is up to 24 hours. The intestines can process about 4 kg of food per day. Warm food. Cold or overly hot foods and drinks irritate the intestinal mucosa. Fiber-rich foods. Fiber is only partially digested by our body and therefore plays an important role in the excretion process, as it enhances the peristalsis of the large intestine. The richest in fiber are cereals (buckwheat, pearl barley), fruits (apples, plums), dried fruits (especially prunes), vegetables (carrots, beets, cabbage, herbs). Dairy products. Kefir, yogurt, cottage cheese and other sour-milk products have a beneficial effect on the intestines, supporting a healthy microflora and inhibiting the development of putrefactive processes.
Early supper. Eating easily digestible food no later than 19:00 will allow not only you to have a good rest during sleep, but also your intestines, which also need sleep. Morning awakening. The bowel, accustomed to emptying in the morning, works much better during the day and does not create a feeling of unnecessary heaviness. This is facilitated by a glass of warm water drunk on an empty stomach or an apple eaten before breakfast. The intestines don’t like: Irritating foods. Irritating foods include spicy, greasy, spicy and smoked foods and alcohol. When used systemically, these products lead to inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and constipation.
Overheated fats. Fats and oils from previous cooking should not be reused! From such “economy” putrefactive microflora blooms in the intestines. Poorly cooked food. Unwashed fruits or poorly peeled vegetables will also not give the intestines pleasure, as well as poorly fried or, conversely, overcooked meat or fish. The gut is a great specialist in the quality of cooked food. Excess fiber and sugar. Given that the intestines “love” foods rich in fiber, it is necessary to know your measure in them. Overeating foods high in fiber and sugar (sweets, fruits, berries, nuts, and raw vegetables) can lead to fermentation and bloating. Antibiotics. More than 400 species of beneficial bacteria live in the human intestine (approximately 1013). A healthy intestinal microflora participates in the synthesis of many vitamins, helps to better absorb food, but, unfortunately, it is very sensitive to all types of antibiotics, the intake of which often leads to the development of dysbiosis. Dehydration. The intestines are especially sensitive to lack of water during the hot season. Water imbalance hinders peristalsis and leads to constipation.
Pancreas and gallbladder
The pancreas is the main “cook” in the digestion process. During the day, her “kitchen” produces almost 800 g of pancreatic juice, which is necessary for the enzymatic breakdown of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. The nutrients, broken down to simpler compounds, are absorbed in the small intestine. When the pancreas malfunctions, the entire digestive system suffers. But the pancreas is not the only organ that breaks down nutrients. No less important in digestion is the role of the gallbladder, in which the bile produced in the liver accumulates. The gallbladder has an oblong shape and in a healthy state reaches the size of a small chicken egg. The role of bile is mainly to break down fats, stimulate the pancreas and increase intestinal motility.
The pancreas and gallbladder love:
Mode. These organs prefer to eat fractionally 4-6 times a day in small portions at the same time. Fiber-rich foods. Vegetables, fruits, grains, bran are products that normalize the peristalsis of the intestines and gallbladder. They also reduce the prerequisites for stone formation, but it is advisable to use them after preliminary processing. The pancreas and gallbladder dislikes: Irritants. Such products include alcohol, sweets, fried fatty foods (smoked meats, sausages, spices). Raw foods. It is not recommended to consume excessive amounts of raw fruits and vegetables, especially during the cold season.
Let’s summarize. The basic principles of good nutrition:
- Try to limit the amount of animal products in your menu: fatty meats and fatty dairy products. Lard, sausages, sausages, sausages, butter, sour cream and cream are best avoided at all or in small quantities and as rarely as possible. Cook food with vegetable oils, but be reasonable in amounts, as it usually requires very little vegetable oil for cooking.
- Try to eat a balanced diet, eat at least 4-5 times a day, adhering to the proverb: “Eat breakfast yourself, share lunch with a friend, and give dinner to the enemy.” Science has confirmed the popular wisdom: the body assimilates and uses the morning meal best of all, and a light dinner 2-3 hours before bedtime will protect you from excess weight. IMPORTANT: get used to not eating at night, remember that not only you, but also your organs want to sleep.
- Eat small meals. It is absolutely not rational to endure hunger all day in order to eat both the first, and the second, and the third in one sitting at lunchtime – this will not only complicate the digestion of dissimilar food, but also excessively stretch the walls of the stomach, which in the future will demand more and more from you and more food. It is quite enough to eat a small plate of porridge for breakfast, only a serving of the second or soup for lunch, and salad for dinner. In between the main meals, you can, for example, drink a glass of milk or sour milk products.
- Your food should be complete in composition, contain all the necessary proteins, fats and carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and its calorie content should correspond to your energy expenditure. This means that fruits, vegetables, herbs must be present in the daily diet, they are the main sources of vitamins. You should not exclude natural products from the diet, replacing them with low-calorie convenience foods. Eat wholesome food, but pay attention to the amount: are you overeating?
- Eat as little sweets as possible, try replacing sugar with fructose or honey. First, sugar is not the best way to get healthier. Secondly, mistakenly counting on sweets to kill your appetite: carbohydrates are absorbed very quickly, and hunger will return to you faster than you have time to waste the calories you have eaten. Be reasonable: your body will be much better if you learn to eat not three cookies at tea, but for example, one or replace it with a piece of cheese.
The basic principles of good nutrition will allow you to lead a fulfilling life and keep your body light and cheerful.