The gastrointestinal system often causes problems for a person. We asked the most popular questions about the stomach to Irina Yakovleva, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Nutritionist, Project V.
Is there a dysbiosis? And how to treat it?
Most often, the term “dysbiosis” is understood as changes in the microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract, although there are frequent changes in the microbiome of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin. In order to suspect such violations, first of all, it is necessary to ask the patient about his complaints. With dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal tract, it can be excessive gas formation and bloating, diarrhea or constipation, impaired digestion of food.
In order to determine which opportunistic microorganisms (UPF) are “to blame” for this and which representatives of the normal intestinal microflora are “lacking”, a study is performed for dysbiosis, and also the sensitivity of the UPF to antibiotics and bacteriophages is determined. And they are treated with appropriate drugs. Then the stage of “colonization” of the gastrointestinal tract begins by representatives of the normal microflora (the patient is prescribed probiotics).
They also recommend certain foods during this period, which contribute to the reproduction of representatives of the normal intestinal microflora (usually these foods contain prebiotics). They are used to normalize nutrition in case of dysbiosis and dietary supplements containing prebiotics, or suppressing the reproduction of UPF.
Does everyone need to drink kefir? Are all yogurts equally healthy?
One of the most common myths about the benefits of certain food products is the myth of the universal, total benefits of kefir and yoghurts (that is, the benefits of fermented milk products for digesting food due to the acidic pH of the product itself and the probiotics they contain).
Firstly, yoghurts are not medicinal preparations that can be used to cure dysbiosis. Second, not all yoghurts are healthy. Long-term stored yoghurts usually contain preservatives. Yoghurts with fruit and berry additions also contain yoghurt stabilizing premixes. The benefits of such yoghurts are few. Thirdly, it is important to understand whether you have diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (for example, duodenal ulcer, hyperacid gastritis), in which uncontrolled eating of fermented milk products can even be harmful.
Can stress lead to ulcers or gastritis? Why is the diagnosis of gastritis so often heard now? How to avoid stomach problems?
The main rule of gastroenterology is that it is important for the health of the gastrointestinal tract what we eat, the regularity of food intake and the environment in which the food takes place.
Of course, in the 21st century, it is difficult to arrange daily family dinners that last at least an hour, with a leisurely change of dishes and small talk. But, firstly, it is easy to organize your meals at the same time (the “biological clock” of the body will remember this and enzymes for digesting food will be formed and secreted at a certain time of day). Remember the experiments of I.P. Pavlov with stimulating the formation of gastric juice in dogs). Secondly, avoiding fast food in your diet is today generally a sign of a person taking care of themselves. Thirdly, it is worth recognizing that stress should not be “seized”, but should be resolved.
The impact of stress on the autonomic nervous system can change not only the vascular tone and lead to hypertension, but also change the secretion of enzymes and hydrochloric acid and lead to gastritis and duodenal ulcer. People who have constant stressful situations at work (managers, employees of public transport, the Ministry of Emergencies, etc.) should develop methods of relaxation for themselves and regularly use dietary supplements that compensate for the excessive consumption of B vitamins and zinc by the nervous system.
What is food intolerance?
There is a true intolerance to any substance found in food (for example, lactose in dairy products or gluten in cereals). It is associated with the genetic characteristics of the organism; lack of formation of enzymes involved in the digestion of this substance. It is necessary to distinguish true food intolerance from intolerance caused by dysbiosis or any disease of the gastrointestinal tract.
For example, people after cholecystectomy (removal of the gallbladder) cannot eat not only fried and fatty ones, but also sauerkraut, pickled cucumbers and many other foods.