Right now the time has come to hear, take into account and try to clarify the opinion on these issues. For some time there were general attacks on the Bill of Rights under the pretext of the so-called drug war. For some reason, the problem of psychoactive substances has become even more frightening, more insidious for society than communism at one time. The quality of the rhetoric coming from the psychedelic community should be radically improved. If this is not done, we will lose the opportunity to use our birthright, and all the possibility of studying the psychedelic dimension will be closed. Ironically, this tragedy can occur as a kind of footnote to the prohibition of synthetic and addictive drugs. It will never be superfluous to say that the issue of psychedelics is a matter of civil rights and civil liberties. This is a question related to the most important of human freedoms — the freedom of religious practice and the private expression of the individual mind.

It was once said that women should not be given the right to vote, otherwise society will perish. And before that, kings could not give up their absolute power: otherwise there would be chaos. And now we are told that it is impossible to legalize psychoactive substances, since otherwise the collapse of society will occur. This is absolute nonsense. As we have seen, human history can be described as a series of relationships with plants, relationships established and broken. We explored many of the ways in which plants, substances, and politics were violently confronted, from the effects of sugar on commerce to the effects of coffee on a modern employee, from the British opiate pressure on the Chinese people to the use of heroin in the ghetto by the CIA to create disagreement and discontent.

Our story is a story of relationships with plants. Her lessons can be made conscious, introduced into social policy and used to create a more prosperous, meaningful world, or they can be rejected, as happened with human sexuality, the discussion of which was forbidden until the work of Freud and others brought it to universal review. This analogy is appropriate, since the enhancement of the ability of cognitive experience, possible due to plant hallucinogens, is basically as fundamental to the essence of a person as sexuality. The question of how soon we will develop into a mature community capable of addressing these topics depends entirely on us.


What is most afraid of those who advocate for a non-working Luddite decision such as “just say no ” is a world in which all traditional social values ​​dissolve in an encounter with individuals and populations obsessed with psychoactive substances and an endless search for self-satisfaction. We should not rule out this too real possibility. But one should reject the idea that such a disturbing, by all accounts, future can be avoided by witch-hunts, the prohibition of research and the hysterical spread of misinformation and lies.

Since time immemorial, psychoactive substances have been part of the galaxy of culture. And only with the advent of technologies capable of purifying and concentrating the active components of plants and herbal preparations, these substances are separated from the general tissue of cultural affairs and instead become a kind of scourge.

In a sense, our problem is not the problem of psychoactive substances, but the problem of controlling our technology. Are we expecting in the future the emergence of new synthetic substances, a hundred, or even a thousand times more capable of causing addiction than heroin or crack? The answer will be an absolute “yes” if we do not recognize and investigate the inherent need for chemical dependence in humans, and then we do not find and approve any ways of expressing this need. We discover that human beings are creations of a chemical habit, with the same terrible distrust with which the Victorians discovered that humans are creations of sexual fantasy and obsession. This process of meeting with oneself as a species is a necessary precondition for creating a more humane social and natural order. It is important to remember that the adventure of such a meeting with oneself does not begin with Freud and Jung and does not end with them. The argument, carefully developed in this book, is that the next step in understanding ourselves can only occur when we take into account our innate and legitimate need to live in an atmosphere rich in mental states that are caused by our own free will. I am confident that we can begin this process by reviewing the sources of our origin. Indeed, I made great efforts to show that in the Archaic environment, in which self-reflection first appeared, we find the keys to the origins of our troubled history.


Hallucinogenic indoles, unexplored and prohibited by law, are presented here as agents of evolutionary change. These are biochemical agents, whose final effect is not on the direct experience of the individual, but on the genetic constitution of the species. In the first chapters, attention was paid to the fact that increasing visual acuity, improving the ability to reproduce and enhancing the stimulation of the protolinguistic functions of the brain are the logical consequences of the inclusion of psilocybin in the food of an ancient person. If one could prove the idea of ​​the emergence of human consciousness in connection with the indole-mediated synergy of neurodevelopment, then our image of ourselves, our attitude to nature, and the current dilemma regarding the consumption of psychoactive substances in society would change.

We cannot solve the “drug problem”, nor the problem of environmental destruction, nor the problem of stockpiles of nuclear weapons, until our image of ourselves as a species is again connected with the Earth. This business, first of all, begins with the analysis of a unique combination of conditions that are necessary for the organization of the animal in order to make a leap towards conscious self-reflection. When the main meaning of the “man-plant” symbiosis mediated by hallucinogens is understood in the scenario of our sources, we are able to understand our current state of neurosis. The lessons learned from those long-standing and formative events can lay the foundation for decision-making not only regarding the need to manage the consumption and abuse of substances in society, but also about our deep and growing need for the spiritual dimension of life.


The softening of Western rationalism has gone very far, which anyone can easily be convinced by reading some modern popular book on cosmology or quantum physics. Nevertheless, I would like to throw a little more heat through introducing the idea of ​​some connection between the measurements, which is achieved most reliably and directly by using indole hallucinogens with their long history of human consumption and their evolution together. Such compounds, obviously, act as regulators of cultural change and can be a means of gaining access to the intent of some very large self-regulating system. Perhaps this is the Superintelligence of our whole species or some kind of “planetary mind”, or maybe we were too limited in our search for an inhuman mind, and some completely different, radically different from us, intelligent species shares our stay with us The earth.

I offer these ideas in a speculative way. I do not have solid personal knowledge of what is happening here. I just believe that I have a sufficient understanding of the customs, expectations, criteria of evidence and the “general knowledge” of human beings to be able to note that what happens when DMT is drunk is much more peculiar than anything that could be termed “intoxication”. Under the influence of DMT, the mind finds itself in a convincingly real, clearly alien world that coexists with us. Not in the world concerning our thoughts, hopes, fears, but rather in the world of babies – their joys, dreams, their poetry. Why? I have not the foggiest idea. These are just facts: this is how it happens to us.

Among the main schools of thought of the 20th century, only Jung’s psychology sought to consider some of the phenomena that are so important for shamanism. Alchemy, which Jung studied very carefully, was the heiress of a long tradition of shamanistic and magical methods, as well as more practical chemical procedures – such as metal processing and embalming. Literature on alchemy testifies that the uplifting swirl of the contents of an alchemical vessel was fertile soil for projecting the contents of a naive pre-scientific mind. Jung insisted that alchemical allegories and emblems were the product of the unconscious and could be analyzed in exactly the same way as dreams. From Jung’s point of view, the discovery of the same motives in the fantastic speculations of the alchemists and in the dreams of his patients was a serious support for his theory of the collective unconscious and universal common archetypes of the latter.

In his study of alchemy, Jung came across reports of Kabiri – elven alchemical children whose appearance or tangible presence is an integral part of the last stages of alchemical creation. These alchemical children are like those little helper spirits whom the shaman calls for help. Jung regarded them as some autonomous side of the psyche that temporarily got out of the control of the ego. Unfortunately, the explanation that these alchemical geniuses are “autonomous aspects of the psyche” is not an explanation at all. This is the same as describing an elf as a small non-physical entity of indeterminate origin. Such explanations only postpone the need for contact with the deeper nature of the experience itself.

Science was not useful in the matter of elusive human contacts with other types of mind. She prefers to direct her attention somewhere else, noting that subjective perceptions, although unusual, are not her area. What a pity, since subjective experience is all that any of us have. In any case, to a large extent the subjective nature of the so-called objective universe is now confirmed by the most objective of the sciences – physics. In new physics, the subjective observer is inextricably linked with the observed phenomena. Interestingly, but this is a return to the shamanistic point of view. The true intellectual legacy of quantum physics may be the new respect and priority that it places on subjectivity. Turning us to subjectivity also means endowing the language with a tremendous new force, since language is the material from which the subjective world is made.

Thanks to psychedelics, we learn that God is not some kind of idea, God is a lost continent in the mind of man. This continent was rediscovered during a great danger to us and our world. What is it? Coincidence, synchronism, or a brutally senseless neighborhood of hope and death? Several years ago, I turned the work of my life to understanding the mystery of the experience caused by tryptamine hallucinogens. After all, this mystery is not one that can be explained by science. Of course, I understand that people distribute their obsessions, trying to fill the whole space. But in the critical events surrounding the emergence of cattle breeding and language in human beings, I found an ancient echo of those moments that I felt and witnessed personally.

Today it is necessary to face the sought and found answer. Before us is a flickering dimension, so enormous that its contours can hardly be accommodated in the focus of the human coordinate system. Our animal existence, our planetary existence ends. According to geological time, this end is only in a few moments. The great dying, the great extinction of many species has occurred at least since the climax of the pinnacle of partner society in prehistoric Africa. Our future is in the mind; the only hope for the survival of our weary planet is that we will find ourselves in our minds and make of it a friend who can reunite us with the Earth, while taking us to the stars. A change, more radical in significance than all that was before, looms directly ahead. Shamans have kept the gnosis of the availability of the Other for millennia; today is planetary knowledge. The consequences of this situation have only just begun to emerge.

Naturally, I do not expect my words to be taken seriously. However, these conclusions are based on experience that is accessible to anyone who finds the time to investigate DMT. The experience itself lasts less than fifteen minutes. I do not foresee criticism from people who did not bother to conduct this simple and unconditional experiment. After all, how seriously can critics deal with the problem if they are not disposed to take a few minutes of their time to experience this phenomenon on their own?

Deep psychedelic experience not only offers the opportunity to live in a world of sane people, in harmony with the Earth and with each other. He also promises an excellent adventure, a meeting with something completely unexpected – with some other neighboring world, full of life and beauty. Do not ask where he is; at the moment we can only say – not here, not there. We are still obligated to acknowledge our own ignorance regarding the nature of the mind and regarding exactly what the world is to be and what it is. For several millennia, and even more, our dream was to understand these issues, and we were defeated. Yes, defeat, if we do not remember another possibility – the possibility of “completely different.”

Some lost souls scan the heavens in search of a friendly “flying saucer” that will penetrate the earthly sphere and take us to Paradise; others suggest seeking salvation at the feet of various rishis, roshis, geishas and gurus. Researchers would better look into the work of nerds, anthropologists, and chemists who located, identified, and characterized the hallucinogens of shamans. Thanks to them, we got our hands on a tool for the salvation of human souls. This is a great tool, but it is a tool that should be used. All our addictions for centuries – from sugar to cocaine and television – have been a tireless search for something taken from us in Paradise. The answer has been found. There is nothing more to look for. He is found.


Using plants of the type described above will help us understand the valuable gift of partnership with plants, lost at the dawn of time. Many people crave facts about their true identity. Plant hallucinogens clearly direct this essential identity. Not knowing your true identity means being some kind of crazy, soulless thing, a golem. And, of course, this image, painfully Orwellian, is applicable to the mass of human beings now living in societies of highly developed industrial democracy. Their authenticity lies in their ability to obey and follow the changes in the mass style that are conveyed by the media. Preoccupied with the consumption of anesthetized food, the absurd communications of the media, and the politics of disguised fascism, they are doomed to a poisoned life at a low level of consciousness. Possessed by the daily television program, they are the living dead, lost for everything except the act of consumption.

I believe that the failure of our civilization to resolve issues related to the problem of psychoactive substances and habitual destructive behavior is an unfortunate legacy for all of us. But if we sufficiently rebuilt the image of ourselves and the image of the world, we could make a tool from pharmacology that gives us the most ambitious hopes and dreams. Instead, pharmacology has become a fiendish servant of the rampant slide into regulation and the destruction of civil liberties.

Most people have a predilection for certain substances and, more importantly, everyone has a predilection for one or another standard of behavior. Trying to see the difference between habits and addictions threatens the indissoluble fusion of mental and physical energies that form the behavior of each of us. People who are not involved in relationships of food stimulation or stimulation with psychoactive substances are rare, and judging by their commitment to dogma and the intentional narrowing of their horizons, they were not able to create any viable alternative to involvement in substances.

Here I tried to explore our biological history and our more modern cultural history in search of something that might be missed. My theme was human agreements with plants, created and torn over the course of millennia. These relationships formed every aspect of our identity as self-reflecting creatures – our language, our cultural values, our sexual behavior, what we remember and forget in our past. Plants are a lost link in the search for an understanding of the human mind and its place in nature.


This “scientific” position in the 19th century was typical for educated consumers of opium and hashish. Usually, researchers turned to these substances in order to “ignite the creative imagination” or for the sake of vaguely defined “inspiration”. Similar motifs were behind the use of marijuana by beat writers, as well as jazz artists before them, and rock performers after them. Some myths of the underground culture are scornful of the popular belief that cannabis could make some kind of contribution to the creative lifestyle. And nevertheless, a certain part of the cannabis-consuming community continues to use it for this very purpose.

The pharmacological profile of a psychoactive substance determines only some of its parameters; the context of its consumption (or, according to the successful expression of Leary and Metzner, “furnishing”) is no less important. The context “recreational”, as it is understood today in the United States, is an atmosphere that lands the cognitive effect of the substance being consumed. Small doses of most psychoactive substances affecting the central nervous system are perceived by the body as artificial stimulation or as energy that can be directed outward in the form of physical activity in order to somehow express this energy and extinguish it. This pharmacological fact lies behind most of the “recreational” insanity against psychoactive substances – legal or illegal. Wednesday, teeming with social cues,supersaturated with noises and distracting visual impressions (a nightclub, for example) is a typical culturally-embraced context of consumption of means for relaxing.

In our culture, private consumption of psychoactive substances is considered as something dubious; their solitary consumption looks like something unhealthy, and in fact all introspection is also considered. The archaic model of consumption of psychoactive plants, including cannabis, is quite the opposite. Ritual, solitude and disconnection of the senses are the methods used by the shaman of Archaic, who intends to go on a journey through the world of spirits and ancestors. Undoubtedly, hemp is “used up” in terms of consumer product and understated, defining it as a means for “relaxing”, but it is also certain that consumed periodically in the context of ritual and cultured expectations that this experience will transform consciousness, cannabis is capable of almost the full range psychedelic effects associated with hallucinogens.


After Beyard Taylor, the next outstanding commentator in the field of hashish phenomena was the tireless Fitz Hugh Ludlow. This little-known bon vivant of the 19th century literature gave rise to the tradition of pharmaco-roguish literature, which later found followers in the person of William Burroughs and Hunter S. Thompson. Ludlow, being a college freshman in 1855, decided to put on himself a scientific experiment on the effect of hashish during a student tea party.

I sat at the tea table when I was in awe. I passed Miss M.’s cup so that she filled it for me for the first time, and when she was about to return it to me, full to the brim with moisture, which invigorates but does not intoxicate, I, unwittingly, calculated the arc, by which her hand reaches me, having passed its way to my saucer. The wall was filled with dancing satires; Chinese mandarins idiot nodded in all corners, and I definitely felt the need to leave the table while I was still not posing.

There is in this report Ludlow about hemp a kind of wonderful quintessence of everything that was amusing for the yank-transcendentalists. Ludlow creates a literary character unlike the poet John Shade in Nabokov’s novel Pale Fire, a hero who allows us to see the problem better than himself. Partly a genius, partly a madman, Ludlow is somewhere halfway between captain Ahab and P.-T. Barnum, this is something like Mark Twain on hashish. There is a wonderful charm in his free spirit, pseudoscientific openness, when he follows his way through the shaky dunes of the world of hashish.

How much hashish sheds light on the deepest secrets of the mind? This is a question that will be dogmatically resolved in two diametrically opposite ways. A person who does not believe in anything that in no way would touch the organs of his body, will instinctively hide himself in the fortress of what he perceives as old common sense, and exclaim from there: “Insane!” He will reject every experience and the facts openly identified as true with the final and unquestioned verdict of abnormality.

And there are people of another class, whose representative, recognizing bodily sensations as very important in the nutrition and strengthening of the human body, is convinced that they give him only the appearance of something: not things as they are in essence and their laws, harmoniously correlated with its source, and only how they affect it through different parts of the body. This person will be inclined to believe that only Mind, with its prerogative of the only self-conscious being in the Universe, has the right and the ability to turn inward to itself for an answer to the amazing riddles of the world …

Arguing this way, a person, although he seems to be a dreamer, a visionary, recognizes the possibility of discovering from the Mind itself (in some of its over-ordinary awakened states) some truth or a set of truths that do not manifest themselves in the everyday state of this person.


The history of cannabis in the United States after Ludlow was at first happy. Consumption of cannabis is not stigmatized and not popularized. This situation lasted until the beginning of the 1930s, until the time when the campaign of Special Inspector of the USA on drugs Harry J. Enslinger did not give rise to general hysteria. Enslinger, apparently, largely acted by the will of the American chemical and petrochemical concerns interested in eliminating the competition of cannabis from the areas of production of lubricants, food, plastics and fibers.

Enslinger and the yellow press presented hemp as a “deadly potion”. William Randolph Hearst also popularized the term “marijuana” with a clear intention to associate it with the unreliable black part of the population. Nevertheless, it was extremely difficult for science to give an exact formulation of what its objections against the habit of cannabis are. The system of state financing of research actually certified one thing: “Caesar will hear only what is pleasing to Caesar.”

Despite all the pressure, hemp consumption has increased, so today hemp may well be the first most common agricultural product. America. This is one of the most enduring aspects of the great paradigm shift, which I call the “revival of the Archaic” here. It shows that the innate desire to restore psychological balance, which embodies the partnership society, is not easily restrained if it finds the right path. As for hemp, all that makes it hostile to the values ​​of modern bourgeois, just inspires love for the revival of the Archaic. It weakens the effect of the ego, has a mitigating effect on the need to compete, raises doubts about authority, and strengthens the understanding that social values ​​have only relative significance.

No remedy can compete with cannabis in its ability to satisfy the innate thirst for the dissolution of boundaries characteristic of the Archaic, and nevertheless leave intact the structures of ordinary society. If all alcoholics became users of marijuana, all “crack” consumers switched to marijuana, and all smokers smoked only hemp, then the social consequences of the “drug problem” would look completely different. But we, as a society, are not ready to discuss the possibility of directing our inclinations and using our mind to choose which plants to take as allies. In time, and perhaps out of desperation, it will come.


Long ago, in situations of depletion of resources and climate change, our ancestors — protohominides — learned to experience natural products of the environment for food. Modern primates (like baboons) still do that. They approach the unusual or unprecedented food source carefully, carefully study its appearance and smell, then put it in the mouth for the sample and hold it in the mouth without swallowing. After a few moments, the animal decides to either swallow the piece or spit it out. For many centuries, this procedure was repeated by man countless times during the establishment of his diet.

Obviously, it was necessary to come to a certain balance between the exclusion of food, which is deliberately unhealthy and reduces the reproductive capacity of the individual, and the inclusion of as many food sources as possible. The logic of evolution is adamant, and in situations of lack of food, those animals that are able and willing to accept more food options evolve more successfully than those that are able to include in their diet only a limited menu. In other words, this or that animal will be pressured to expand the range of usable food, expanding its tastes.


The expansion of tastes or the acquisition of taste is a process that is learned; This process has both psychological and biochemical components. The process of acquiring taste is extremely complicated. On the one hand, it entails overcoming the inertia of established habits, those habits that exclude a potentially new food unit, considering it exotic, unfamiliar, poisonous or somehow connected with enemies or outcasts of society. On the other hand, it includes adaptation to chemically unusual food. This process activates such involuntary systems of the body as, for example, the immune system; it also includes psychological mechanisms, such as, say, the desire to accept a new food for reasons that may be both social and related to its nutritional value. In the case of hallucinogenic plants, changes in the image of oneself and in one’s social roles, often following the establishment of the acceptability of these plants, are very quick and serious. But let’s not forget that hallucinogens are located on the very edge of the food scale.

What can be said about the innumerable multitude of plants that give food flavor, but represent insignificant nutritional value and have negligible psychoactivity? They had the opportunity to become those food units that people used constantly. In fact, they have gone from being an exotic luxury for the few idle class of the Roman Empire, to becoming commercial goods, which directed the immense efforts of Europeans to explore and colonize new lands and start the car of the merchants and the creation of empires that replaced the stagnation Middle Ages in Christian Europe, fixated on intra-social issues.

“Variety gives a taste of life,” says the famous maxim. But after studying the influence of plants and plant products on the history of mankind, it would be more correct to say: “Taste gives life a variety”. The Middle Ages – and their ending – is just such a case.

The culture of dominion has never been so strongly protected as in Christian Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire. And, it seems, it is possible to say with certainty that hardly ever did the people stay in such a protracted situation of the paucity of psychoactive drugs and the absence of chemical stimulants. Diversity that promotes learning and boredom has been absent from Europe for too long.

Medieval Europe was one of the most closed, neurotic and hating women from all societies that had ever existed. It was a society dying to escape from itself, a society obsessed with too harsh morality and the suppression of sexuality.

It was a landbound society, ruled by meat-eating gouty, wearing clothes and suppressing women. And is there anything strange in the fact that dyes and spices — perhaps the cause of social revolutions — have become the point of some absolute mania in medieval Europe? And the strength of this mania was such that the art of shipbuilding and navigation, the banking and trading industry turned entirely to the ministry of addiction to these things, experienced by most Europeans. Spices (as a new taste) gave food and, consequently, life, a variety previously unknown. Dyes, new dyeing techniques and exotic fabrics have revolutionized fashion.


Most people who were born in a society of abundance, sense gratification and television with high quality images, it is difficult to imagine the senseless stupidity of most of the societies of the past. All the “pomp” of the great societies of the past was, in essence, simply a demonstration of diversity – diversity in color, in fabrics, in materials and in external design. Such demonstrations of diversity were the exclusive prerogative of the ruler and the court. The novelty of the costumes and the new posts at the court were in some way indicative of his power. So it was when the emerging bourgeoisie of the late Middle Ages began importing dyes and spices, silk and manufactory items to Europe.

I can personally witness the power of the influence of color and diversity on human imagination. The periods of isolation in the jungle during field work in the upper reaches of the Amazon taught me to understand how quickly the disorderly diversity of civilized life can be forgotten and then cause thirst similar to the one that occurs when you deprive of some strong drug. After several weeks spent in the jungle, the mind becomes crammed with plans about what restaurants you will visit, returning to civilization, what music you will listen to, what movies you will watch. One day, after spending many days in the rain forest in the rain, I went to one village to ask the residents for permission to collect a collection of plants in the area of ​​their tribe.The only impregnation of “high technology” in the primitive setting of the tribe was a calendar with images of naked women brought from Iquitos and proudly decorated the reed wall just behind the head of the village. When I talked to him, my eyes turned again and again to this calendar, not to its content, but to its colors. Red, bluish, apricot – an eerie and obsessive attraction to diversity was as irresistible as the lure of any drug!

The dyes and spices of the more technically advanced and more aesthetically refined world of Islam entered the bloodstream of gloomy Christian Europe with the power of a hallucinogenic substance. Cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, its dried husks and cardamom, dozens of other exotic spices, aromatic substances and dyes appeared to broaden the taste and wardrobe of beer and bread culture wrapped in wool. Our own culture in the past few years has witnessed a similar, albeit more superficial trend in the emergence of “yuppie” fashion – fashion for novelty and for new exotic restaurants: from national to ultramodern, super modern.

At school we were taught that the spice trade ended the Middle Ages and created the basis of modern commerce and commerce, but we did not get an understanding of the fact that the decay of Christian medieval Europe was a consequence of the epidemic obsession with new, exotic and pleasant – in short, mind-expanding substances. Means such as coffee, wormwood, as well as opium, dyes, silks, rare species of trees, jewels and even people, were brought to Europe and demonstrated almost like prey taken from some extraterrestrial civilization. This idea of ​​the splendor of the East – with its luxury, sensuality and unexpected compositional motifs – acted in changing not only aesthetic norms, but also the canons of social behavior and a person’s own image. The names of the cities of the Silk Road – Samarkand,Ecbatana – have become a kind of mantra, marking the worlds of refinement and luxury, previously associated only with Paradise. Social boundaries dissolved; old problems began to be seen in a new light; new secular classes arose, challenging the monogamy of the popes and kings.

In short, there was a sudden acceleration of the emergence of novelty and the emergence of new social forms — the control traces of a kind of quantum leap — in the ability of European imagination. And again, the search for plants and the mental stimulation caused by them inspired a certain part of humanity to experiment with new social forms, new technologies, as well as to super-fast expansion of the limits of language and imagination. The pressure on the development of the spice trade literally reformed the art of navigation, shipbuilding, diplomacy, military art, restructured geography and economic planning. And again the unconscious desire to imitate and, thus,partial restoration of lost symbiosis


When the thirst for diversity was quenched by a massive and continuous import of spices, dyes and aromatic substances, the resulting infrastructure focused on other aspirations for diversity, especially the production and export of sugar, chocolate, tea and coffee, as well as purified alcohol – psychoactive products properties. Our present-day planetary trading system was created to satisfy people’s inherent need for diversity and stimulation: This was done with purposeful intensity, which tolerated no interference from the church or the state. Neither moral doubts nor physical barriers were able to stand in this way. Now we can seem to ourselves to be exceptionally well settled – now any “spice”, any psychoactive substance,however limited its traditional consumption zone may be, it can be identified and then produced or synthesized for speedy export and sale in the needy market anywhere in the world.

Now global pandemics of adherence to a particular substance have become possible. The import of tobacco smoking in Europe in the 16th century was the first and most obvious example. It was followed by many others – from the increased spread of opium consumption in China among the British, through the opium fashion in England in the 18th century, and to the spread of the habit of distilled alcohol among North American Indian tribes.

Of the many new products that made their way to Europe during the collapse of medieval stagnation, one stands out in particular as a product with a new taste, as a chosen substance. This is cane sugar. Sugar has been known for centuries as a rare medical substance. The Romans knew that it could be extracted from bamboo-like grass. But the tropical conditions necessary for the cultivation of sugarcane were a guarantee that sugar would be a rare and imported commodity in Europe. Only in the XIX century on the initiative of Napoleon I began to grow sugar beet as an alternative to cane sugar.

Sugar cane is known to be found in the wild, and this plant is well represented in tropical Asia. At least five species grow in India. Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) has undoubtedly undergone significant hybridization throughout its long history of domestication. The Persian king Khosrov (AD 531-578), whose court was near Jandi-Shapur, sent envoys to India to study the rumors about exotic substances.

Among them (of these substances) Sukkar (Pers. “ Shakar” ” or “ shakkar ”, Skt. “ Sarkara ” ) was brought to Jandi-Shapur from India , our “ sugar ”, unknown to Herodotus and Ctesias, but known to Nearchus and Onesikrita as “reed honey”, which supposedly is made by rees by bees. The legend tells that Khosrow found a whole warehouse of sugar among the treasures captured in the year 527 when conquering Dastigrid. In India, cane juice was cleaned and turned into sugar around 300 g. e., and now this reed began to be cultivated near Jandi-Shapur, where sugar mills were known for a long time. Then, and even after a long time, sugar was used only to sweeten bitter medicines, and only much later did he begin to replace honey as usual sweetness.

Sugar came to England around 1319, and became popular in Sweden by 1390. It was an expensive and exotic novelty, mostly speaking in its traditional medical role: sugar made acceptable a very unpleasant taste mixture – a mixture of medicinal herbs, animal entrails and other components, typical of the medieval Pharmacopoeia. Before the discovery of antibiotics, it was decided to sprinkle wounds on them before bandaging them, since the drying effect of sugar might have helped the treatment.

The Spaniards grew sugar cane in their possessions in the Caribbean, and they could claim the dubious honor of bringing slaves into the New World to produce sugar.

Until 1550, all sugar imported from the Western Hemisphere consisted of literally several heads, delivered as evidence of the possibility of its production, or simply as a curiosity. Plantations in the western islands of the Atlantic and in the New World had no effect on sugar production, its distribution and prices until the second half of the 16th century and gained dominant influence only sometime since 1650.

Suicide for Sugar

Isn’t it a stretch to discuss sugar in the context of human consumption of psychoactive substances? Far from it. Sugar abuse is the least discussed habit in the world and the most common. And this is one of the hardest habits of artificial pleasure. Sugar lovers may stick to constant consumption in moderation, or they may be such that they eat up to the heap. Examples of the seriousness of addiction to sugar are subjects who are able to absorb excess sugar-rich food, and then induce vomiting or use laxatives to allow themselves to eat more sugar. Imagine what would happen if such a practice was associated with heroin. How much more odious and insidious would then be his consumption! As with all stimulants, sugar intake is accompanied by short euphoria,followed by depression and guilt. As a syndrome, sugar addiction is rarely found in isolation. The most common addictions of mixed type – for example, sugar and caffeine.

There are other examples of the purely narcotic consumption destructive effects that accompany sugar abuse. Some of his followers use food pills to control their increasing weight, and then tranquilizers to soothe the nervous irritation caused by the pills. Sugar abuse is often associated with the occurrence of serious alcohol abuse; The unconditional relationship between high sugar consumption and high alcohol consumption without snacks has been proven. After alcohol and tobacco, sugar is the most harmful of the addictive substances that a person consumes. Its uncontrolled consumption can lead to serious chemical dependence.

Describing sugar followers, Janice Phelps states.