Headache

Posted on December 24, 2017  in Pain

In its variety of headaches, there is no equal. It can be long and aching, or sharp and unbearable, it can cover the entire head or be felt only in the temples.

Causes of headache

Headache is one of the most frequent complaints with a therapist or neurologist. At the same time, the headache is considered something not very serious: with episodic pain, most prefer to drink an analgesic tablet and consider the problem resolved. We prefer to go to the doctor only if there is very severe pain, or if there are more seizures.

The causes of the headache are a great many: changes in blood pressure; inflammation, trauma and brain tumor; neuralgia; autonomic dysfunction; solar and thermal shocks; intoxication and much more. In some diseases, for example, with migraine, an intense headache is the main manifestation of the disease.

In its variety of headaches, there is no equal. It can be long and aching, or sharp and unbearable, it can cover the entire head or be felt only in the temples. So, under what conditions does the headache occur, and what is it?

Aching bilateral headache and its causes

A aching bilateral headache often accompanies arterial hypotension. Usually such a headache appears after sleep in the morning and is felt in the temporal areas. There is a headache with physical exertion, drinking beverages containing caffeine – for example, tea or coffee.

Contrary to popular belief, hypertension rarely causes a headache if the pressure is increased continuously. But if it jumped dramatically, most people feel headache and tinnitus, combined with the flashing of flies before their eyes, a feeling of tightness in the back of the head, a thud in the temples and dizziness. To such a state should be taken seriously, it can become a sign of a developing hypertensive crisis. A crisis, in turn, can lead to complications: stroke and myocardial infarction.

Psychogenic headache

Widespread and so-called psychogenic headache. Under this name, the headache is combined from mental or physical stress, as well as pain in anxiety and depression. With such conditions it can be difficult to describe the nature of pain – it can be either aching, now pressing, then concentrated in the occipital, temporal or frontal areas, then spread throughout the head. Diagnosis and treatment of headaches are individual for each patient and often require the involvement of specialists in medical psychology and psychoneurology.

Migraine headache

Headache is the main and often the only manifestation of migraine – a disease associated with a violation of the tone of the cerebral vessels. Migraine often affects women: the first bouts begin at the age of 10 to 30 years. When a classic migraine first appears aura in the form of blurred vision, obscuring objects, etc. Then a one-sided pulsating headache builds up, which can give into the eye and is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, sound and photophobia.

There are many other forms of migraine. With them, the pain can begin without an aura, be accompanied by neurological disorders, appear in the face, be sudden, short-term and intense (“thundering”). Sometimes seizures may follow one after another for several days, accompanied by nausea and vomiting. This condition is called a migraine status.

Horton’s (histamine) headache

It manifests as periodic short (15 minutes – 2 hours) seizures. Usually, such headaches occur late at night or early in the morning. The pain is extremely strong, burning, drilling, piercing; appears suddenly and is usually concentrated on one side in the orbit. During the attack the patient can not lie or sit, but walks around the room (unlike the patients with migraine who try to find a dark, quiet place and fall asleep). Typically, seizures occur daily for several weeks or even months, after which they disappear for years. Most often, the Hortonian headache affects men over 20 years old.

Headache from meningitis

If a severe headache occurs simultaneously with fever, it can signal the onset of meningitis – inflammation of the meninges. With meningitis, the headache is severe, it can be pressing on the eyes, accompanied by nausea and vomiting. At the same time, there are other manifestations of meningitis – for example, it is impossible to touch the chin to the chest, there may be disturbances in consciousness. On the other hand, high temperature itself causes a headache, which, however, occurs after taking aspirin or paracetamol.

Sudden severe headache

A sudden severe headache (often with loss of consciousness or a sensitivity disorder in any area of ​​the body) occurs with a hemorrhage in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). As a rule, it occurs with an increase in blood pressure and atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels. The headache in stroke is often described very emotionally: “this is the most terrible headache I’ve ever experienced,” “something seemed to burst in my head.” This formidable condition often ends pitifully: subsequent persistent disruption of movements and sensitivity, or even death. The prognosis largely depends on timely and qualified medical care, so in such cases, “first aid” should be called forth immediately.

Headache as a symptom of a brain tumor

If the headache episodes began for no apparent reason and quickly became regular and intense, you should not postpone the visit to the neurologist – this pain is often the first manifestation of a brain tumor. Often the pain is accompanied by nausea, dizziness, double vision. Similar pain can also be observed with a hematoma (blood clump) under the cerebral membrane or with an abscess (suppuration) of the brain.

Headache as a symptom of diseases of the spine

Quite often, the cause of the headache lies outside the cranial cavity. For example, cervical osteochondrosis, spondyloarthritis, radiculitis and other diseases of this part of the spine are often accompanied by a headache. The cause of pain in the frontal and temporal areas can be inflammation of the paranasal sinuses – for example, sinusitis or frontalitis. When otitis headaches capture the parotid space, can be very strong and sharp (“shoots in the ear”). Strengthening the headache against otitis media or spreading it to other parts of the head, along with the occurrence of nausea and vomiting, may be a sign of the spread of infection and requires immediate medical attention. Headache and impaired sensation of the face become a manifestation of neuralgia of the trigeminal or facial nerves. “Masked” headache may also be the disease of the joints of the lower jaw.

Toxic headache

Another type of headache is toxic. It occurs when poisoning with various chemicals or as a side effect of taking medications. For example, headache is often caused by drugs that lower blood pressure, nitrates, psychotropic drugs and many other substances. A special case of toxic headache is the popularly known hangover; with it the head hurts because of the action of acetic aldehyde – a toxic product of the decomposition of ethyl alcohol.

Spilled headache

A diffuse headache may occur in a perfectly healthy person in a stuffy room (due to a banal lack of oxygen for the brain). It can cause carbon monoxide, car exhausts, evaporation from drying paint and just sharp smells, even pleasant ones. A severe headache accompanies sun and heat strokes.

As you can see, the causes and manifestations of the headache are many. And it is not surprising, because pain is a signal that the body gives us in case of danger. These signals are especially alarming when it comes to such a complex and sensitive organ as the brain and adjacent tissues.

Well, in order not to wait for a headache, it is necessary to train the vessels with moderate physical exertion, to be more often outdoors, not to drink without measure and not to abuse medicines. And if your head aches, visit your doctor or neurologist and follow his recommendations carefully and accurately.

7 types of headache: the difference and what they say

Posted on December 24, 2017  in Pain

In the meantime, headaches can turn into chronic and substantially impair your life. What kind of headache indicates a serious illness? And what is the disease itself? Let’s try to figure out how to distinguish headaches and how to treat them.

Tension pains

This is the most common type of headache in the world – each of us experienced it at least once in life. They are not repeated often, the chronic form is acquired in 3% of cases.

Symptoms. It feels like pressure or tightness around the circumference of the upper part of the head. It may seem that the muscles of the forehead and orbits are too tense, but you can not relax them. The duration of such pain varies from half an hour to a week, the intensity usually increases by the evening.

Possible reasons. Tension pain can be associated with excessive stress or trauma to the muscles of the head and neck. However, in diagnosis, the source of pain, as a rule, remains “uncertain.”

How to treat. Because the pain rarely gets regular, the best remedy for them is simple painkillers, like ibuprofen or paracetamol. If the pain does not pass more than a week, you can try to do light physical exercises, regularly stretch the shoulders and neck, more to be in the air to level out stress. Chronic tense pains are treated medically with the doctor’s prescription.

Migraine

Symptoms. Migraine is called repetitive pain on one side of the head, lasting about 4 hours and longer. As a rule, episodes of migraine are repeated and can lead to dizziness, nausea and photophobia (photophobia). Sometimes before the onset of an attack, patients experience visual anomalies – see bright colored rings and bands – or feel a slight tingling all over the body.

Possible reasons. The mechanism of the appearance of migraines has long been the subject of controversy in the scientific community. Now doctors are sure – this is a disease with no exact psychic properties. It is related to the violation of brain functions, but with what, it is for certain unknown. It is noted that in the process of the appearance of pain the blood vessels of the head greatly expand, and abnormal electrical activity appears on the cerebral cortex.

How to treat. Approximately 20% of migraine sufferers have pain after a certain external impact – a sharp smell, loud monotonous sound, cigarette smoke, etc. Such sick doctors are simply advised to avoid “risk factors”, the rest remains to drink medicine for the intended purpose (the greatest effectiveness is given triptans, but they act almost like a drug – the more you drink, the worse it cures). Unfortunately, you can not completely cure migraines, but you will not help them with simple painkillers.

Cluster pains

These pains affect approximately 1% of the total population of the planet, and in 80% of cases it is men.

Symptoms. It is an intense throbbing pain on one side of the head, usually in the anterior part, near the eye. It lasts from 15 minutes to an hour and is accompanied by reddening of the eyes, tearing, a runny nose, a rush of blood to the head. It usually appears at the same time of day with uniform time intervals – once a week, a month, two, and so on. Sometimes achieves such an acuteness that a person can not but what normally functions – even move and talk.

Possible reasons. Unknown.

How to treat. This kind of pain is difficult to treat, because they occur sporadically and can disappear as unpredictably as they appeared. When prolonged attacks, oxygen therapy is used (the patient breathes through the mask) and medicinal injections according to the doctor’s prescription.

Hangover

Symptoms. Obvious.

Possible reasons. Guess how much alcohol contributes to the onset of a headache, a lot. One of them says that alcohol dilates the vessels of the brain and disrupts the work of the neurotransmitter serotonin – a substance through which electrical signals are transmitted from one nerve cell to another. Both of these symptoms are also observed with migraine pain. In addition, alcohol dries the body, and dehydration is also known as a provoker of migraine attacks.

How to treat. The best remedy is a paracetamol tablet and a good sleep. But to treat with a joke to a hangover still not worth it. If the head hurts even after a small dose of alcohol, you may be suffering from migraine, and alcohol simply pushes seizures.

Brain tumor

Hypochondriacs and simply anxious patients often link the headache to brain cancer. We hasten to reassure: in fact, only 4% of tumor formations manifest themselves in this way.

Symptoms. If pain is still associated with the tumor, they usually appear in the morning and are accompanied by vomiting. Episodes are repeated periodically and eventually become worse and worse. If against this background there is a sharp weight loss, personality changes and convulsive seizures, this is an occasion to undergo a brain examination.

Possible reasons. When the tumor grows to a certain size, an increase in brain volume leads to an increase in intracranial pressure. Hence the initial symptoms.

How to treat. Depends on the location, size and type of education.

Intracranial bleeding

Having suffered an injury to the head vessels, a person may not understand this immediately. Sometimes a bleeding occurs a few hours after the rupture of the vessel, but potentially very dangerous.

Symptoms. Sudden, growing pain in any part of the head. It is accompanied by visual impairments, speech skills, coordination, personality disorders, nausea. Symptoms appear in turn and deteriorate over time. In the end, a person can lose consciousness.

Perhaps the reasons. A rupture of the vessel can occur as a result of a trauma (strong impact) or because of excessive thinning of its walls.

How to treat. First of all, the doctor will need to remove the accumulated blood from the cranium, because the hematoma will press on the brain, damaging it. Then it is extremely important to find out the cause of the hemorrhage: if it was not preceded by a clear trauma, the gaps may recur. Such patients need a cerebral vascular examination.

Temporal arteritis

The disease, as a rule, occurs in people 50 and older and without treatment can lead to complete blindness.

Symptoms. Strong headaches occur against the background of weight loss, insomnia, depression, sometimes high fever and redness of the scalp. The shoulder and neck can also hurt.

Possible reasons. Many different factors can push the disease, including viral infections. A strong attack on the immune system causes it to malfunction and makes the immune system attack the walls of blood vessels. Among other “provokers” of arteritis – uncontrolled intake of drugs, intense exposure to sunlight, alcoholism, hypothermia and various injuries.

How to treat. The most commonly used steroid drugs that stop the inflammation of blood vessels. If there are accompanying problems with eyesight (for example, clouding of the lens), the treatment should be handled by an ophthalmologist.

Tramadol is a narcotic analgesic capable of causing severe dependence

Drug addicts use many drugstores to get high. To such medicines is Tramadol. The danger of this drug lies in the fact that in high doses it causes dependence after the first intake and leads to irreversible violations of internal organs and psyche.

Tramadol as a drug

Tramadol belongs to the group of narcotic opioid analgesics. Earlier it could be bought in a drugstore, though with difficulty, but now the drug is everywhere withdrawn from circulation.

Tramadol is available in capsules for oral administration, ampoules for injections and rectal suppositories. In Russia, he is prescribed only to a fatal patient who experiences unbearable pain in the late stages of illness.

In the past, the drug was used in the treatment of drug addiction. Due to the fact that it has an effect on the central nervous system, it alleviates the pain in the withdrawal syndrome, but other manifestations of withdrawal only aggravate. Therefore, now restrictions are imposed on the use of the medication.
Currently, half of the patients in the narco-dispensaries are people who are dependent on Tramadol. According to statistics, the drug is consumed by thousands of schoolchildren.

As a synthetic heroin opiate, Tramadol often causes an overdose. It leads to paralysis, limb amputation, serious CNS lesions and death. But is he a drug? Indeed, many drug addicts use the drug as a single drug or use it at a time when they can not find heroin.

Composition

The composition of Tramadol differs slightly depending on the form of release. The active substance of the drug is tramadol hydrochloride. As auxiliary components in the capsules, magnesium stearate and milk sugar are contained, and in injection solutions, sodium acetate and distilled water are contained.

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of the drug Tramadol After penetration into the bloodstream Tramadol begins to affect the activity of the nervous system. It inhibits pain impulses and stimulates opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord. As a result, a person has pain relief.

The use of the drug for its intended purpose and compliance with the recommendations of the doctor, rarely leads to side effects.

However, exceeding the therapeutic dose causes drug intoxication and related side effects:

  • retardation;
  • hallucinations;
  • cardiopalmus;
  • dizziness.

Properties

As a narcotic analgesic, Tramadol has a powerful analgesic effect. The effect of the drug begins almost immediately after administration inward or parenterally and lasts a long time. By activity inferior to morphine, so it is used in higher doses.

Effect

The effect of Tramadol begins one to two minutes after ingestion. There comes a euphoria, which lasts 12-36 hours, but as it gets used to the drug its duration gradually decreases. After a while, narcotic intoxication becomes weak, passes through 1-5 minutes.

Drug addicts usually use Tramadol in capsules, less often they use injectable solutions for artisanal drug production. After taking the drug develops an empathic state, similar to what causes “ecstasy.”

It is accompanied by:

  • emotional susceptibility;
  • desire to help others;
  • sympathy and sympathy for all, even for the enemies;
  • the tide of vivacity;
  • looseness.

After one or two days intoxication comes to naught. A person has a fear of being alone, nightmares begin to haunt him. As you get accustomed to the drug, euphoria and empathy practically disappear, but paranoia and mania develop, as well as as a result of prolonged use of heroin.

By the end of the first week of taking Tramadol against the background of euphoria, the first hallucinations appear. The patient can hear or see certain creatures. He talks to them, watches them from outside in extreme situations, perceiving what is happening as an exciting adventure.

The development of dependence

Therapeutic doses of Tramadol, as a rule, are not addictive. However, even with a slight excess of it, even after the first use of the drug, both physical and psychological dependence develops.

During three months of regular use, Tramadol is the only or the main drug for a person. If the patient wants to be treated and gets rid of physical dependence, the psychological craving for the drug will still remain. It persists to 10-15 years, so very often failures occur.

Even with the help of detoxification in the hospital it is impossible to completely purify the body of Tramadol. The products of its decay are deduced within 20-25 years.

The process of inpatient treatment itself occurs quite quickly and takes from a week to a month. However, in practice, 75% of people who at least once tried Tramadol, go back to taking the drug for 4-5 years. This in most cases ends with death.

After a dramatic withdrawal of Tramadol, the drug addict experiences the most severe of all possible abstinence symptoms. The break takes 20-25 days.

Hallucinations in the period of the abstinence syndrome do not vanish, but, on the contrary, become more frequent and realistic, the gloominess of their plots increases.

In parallel, the patient manifests other mental disorders:

  • severe depression with suicidal tendencies;
  • aggressiveness;
  • hysteria;
  • irritability.

In a state of abstinence after Tramadol, a person’s feelings of guilt and shame are greatly exacerbated not only for their actual actions, but also for their invented ones. As a result, the patient begins to get angry, afraid for themselves and their loved ones, although there is no reason for this.

At the same time, a person experiences painful physical symptoms:

  • headache;
  • high blood pressure;
  • fever and chills;
  • sweating;
  • an ache in a body;
  • muscle pain;
  • cardiopalmus.

The patient is so weak that she can not even sit down without help. Appetite is completely absent. As a result, the addict spends all the breakdown in bed.

Symptoms of withdrawal usually become worse in the evening and at night. The patient can not fall asleep, but even if it turns out, realistic nightmares arise. They are intertwined with hallucinations, since when breaking a person can not fully fall asleep, and intoxication is still present.

Signs and symptoms of consumption

Tramadol is a psychoactive drug, so its use primarily causes behavioral abnormalities. They can be different and depend on the personality characteristics of the patient.

In different cases:

  • excessive motor activity or lethargy;
  • drowsiness or insomnia;
  • inability to concentrate;
  • self-isolation and indifference to everything;
  • reluctance to communicate with loved ones;
  • decreased memory and attention;
  • absenteeism of study or work without a clear explanation;
  • acute reaction to criticism;
  • sharp mood swings;
  • falsity and avoidance of direct answers to questions;
  • untidy appearance;
  • the appearance of suspicious acquaintances, jargon;
  • interest in specific music and films;
  • constant requests to borrow money;
  • loss of values.

The dependence on Tramadol can also be recognized by physiological characteristics. They can also vary depending on the characteristics of the body.

Most often in people who take the drug, there are:

  • enlarged or narrowed pupils;
  • red squirrel eyes;
  • clouded look;
  • pale or reddened skin;
  • rash;
  • slow and incoherent or simply accelerated speech;
  • lack of appetite or gluttony;
  • strong weight loss or a large weight gain;
  • digestive disorders;
  • excessive gesticulation;
  • unstable gait.

Within a month on the background of the reception of Tramadol, the patient’s appetite gradually comes to naught. At the same time, an unquenchable thirst develops.

Within three months of regular use of the drug develops physical, emotional and mental exhaustion. The person becomes more and more sluggish. He is often in a good mood, but laughter can suddenly turn into tears or a flash of aggression.

Because of the increased pressure in the patient, there are more intense headaches, with him there are fainting. Opportunities to learn and work are reduced, because memory worsens, absent-mindedness grows. As a result, a person has to exert more effort to perform the usual actions.

Effects

Consequences of prolonged use of TramadolAfter one year of misuse of Tramadol, bone tissue is significantly weakened in humans. This increases the risk of fractures and related injuries. Loss of teeth and hair can also occur.

If the patient does not throw Tramadol, then, as a rule, he dies within 3-4 years. However, even after a successful rehabilitation, people have the consequences of dependence that they will have to struggle with for the rest of their lives.

After two years of continuous use of the drug, severe consequences develop:

  • epilepsy;
  • toxic hepatitis;
  • dementia;
  • cirrhosis of the liver.

Among other consequences of long-term use of Tramadol, mental abnormalities are noted:

  • alternation of euphoria and depression;
  • bouts of irritability;
  • obsessions;
  • paranoids.

Only a quarter of tramadol addicts survive after undergoing rehabilitation. The rest die from causes that are directly or indirectly related to the consequences of dependence.

According to statistics, most patients die as a result of overdoses, which occur during breakdowns. Up to 9% of all those who use this drug commit suicide during withdrawal, slightly less people die from diseases of internal organs. With 3% of patients in a state of drug intoxication, accidents occur that lead to death.

Overdose and poisoning

Overdose Tramadol causes a strong intoxication of the body, with characteristic symptoms. Among them:

  • vomiting;
  • difficulty in swallowing function;
  • respiratory depression, up to apnea and coma;
  • visual and taste disorders;
  • bullous eruptions;
  • cyanosis of the skin and lips;
  • deep dream;
  • no response to pain and sound stimuli;
  • loss of consciousness;
  • rapid breathing;
  • falsely epileptic seizures;
  • slow heart rate;
  • violation of coordination of movements.

Tramadol poisoning requires immediate hospitalization of the patient to the hospital. There he will be organized pulmonary ventilation and pick up symptomatic therapy.

Treatment of dependence

Drug dependence on Tramadol is treated by the same methods as opium addiction. The patient needs rehabilitation in the medical center.

Regardless of the condition of a person, he is hospitalized. However, this requires personal consent of the patient.

Treatment is carried out in several stages:

  • Detoxification.
  • General strengthening therapy.
  • Active drug treatment.
  • Antiretroviral therapy.

Detoxification lasts 3-4 weeks, during which the patient takes glucose, vitamin-mineral complexes, blood substitutes, nootropics and other drugs. In parallel, symptomatic treatment is performed. If necessary, prescribe analeptics for the normalization of respiratory functions, medications to restore the work of the heart and blood vessels.

An important condition of treatment – a sharp and final refusal to use Tramadol. The withdrawal syndrome, which causes this drug, is removed with clonidine and pyrroxane. To eliminate psychoses, tranquilizers and haloperidol are usually prescribed.

As part of the antinarcotic treatment, the body functions that are damaged as a result of Tramadol’s administration are restored, the behavior of the patient is corrected and the cravings in the drug are suppressed. At this stage, antidepressants and antipsychotics are used, in parallel treatment continues with nootropic drugs.

Also, the patient is affected by psychotherapeutic methods. Individual and collective classes are held in different centers. Hypnosis can be used with the development of aversion to the drug at the subconscious level, acupuncture, electrostimulation.

The longest stage is maintenance therapy, aimed at maintaining the achieved result and preventing breakdowns. After discharge from the medical institution, the patient should continue to attend psychotherapy sessions and take fortified preparations. The duration of anti-relapse treatment can be up to five years.

TREATMENT OF PAINS IN SPIN

Posted on December 24, 2017  in Pain

Sad statistics show that about half of the adult population suffers from back pain, but only one in five calls for qualified help from a doctor. Negligent attitude to one’s health is fraught with involvement in the pathological process of not only many muscles, but also some internal organs. The result of the defeat of the cervical spine are severe headaches, buzzing in the ears, blurred vision, dizziness. If the thoracic area is affected, the work of the heart and lungs is disrupted. Diseases of the lumbar spine affect the functioning of the digestive organs and kidneys, men lose libido.

With regular attempts to lift heavy objects, and also because of jumps and falls, microtraumas of intervertebral discs occur. The systemic nature of the negative effect helps to lose the elasticity of the intervertebral discs – they flatten, the distance between the vertebrae decreases. Accordingly, the nerve roots from the spinal cord are clamped. The result is discomfort and pain. At the same time, in the region of the clamping of the unequal-vascular bundle, puffiness is formed, because of which the patient experiences even more pain. The destruction of the intervertebral disc leads to the fact that it stops damping and traumatizes even more.

The prognosis of doctors is based on the age at which the patient first encountered the disease. The most dangerous situation develops, if the symptoms appeared in 16-18 years – this means an early onset of the disease. By 21-23 years, protrusions with a high probability of protrusions, to 32-34 years – intervertebral hernias. In the elderly, hernias are often aggravated, vegetative dysfunction, neuralgia, vascular disease develops. If the pain in the back is localized in the lumbar region and first touched the patient, when he has reached the age of 55-65 years, doctors give a positive prognosis.

Examination of the spine is necessary if the pain does not go away during movement, intensifies at night, has a high intensity and appeared for the first time. In addition, the need to urgently visit the clinic says incontinence of feces and urine, recent injuries, an oncological anamnesis. If the pain lasts longer than two weeks, the disease with a high degree of probability will take a chronic form, which is difficult to treat.

SYMPTOMS

In the vast majority of cases, the culprit of pain is osteochondrosis. The intervertebral hernia manifests itself as painful sensations when lifting heavy objects and with simultaneous turning of the trunk in an inclined position. After this, the patient feels weakness and pain in the leg – right or left. Discomfort is worse with body movements, sneezing, coughing. Radiculitis is easy to recognize by the sharp pain in the lower back. If the patient experiences continuous unpleasant sensations in the occipital part and shoulders when trying to turn his head, it signals a chronic spinal disease – cervical spondylosis, which provokes growth and subsequent deformation of the vertebrae. Among other things, those suffering from back pain often complain about the inability to breathe deeply and the lack of mobility of the chest. In some cases, the cause is trauma – sprain or bruise. Proper treatment allows you to recover completely, the absence of treatment contributes to the occurrence of serious complications that can lead to a noticeable curvature of the spine.

CAUSES

Examination of the spine helps to identify the reason for the patient’s backache. Only understanding what is the catalyst for the ailment makes it possible to choose a suitable treatment regimen. The back is the most extensive anatomical region, which includes the lower back and the sacrum, neck, scapula and spine. It is on the back is the projection of dozens of important anatomical structures. This is due to a variety of causes that can cause malaise. Usually these factors are pathology of the musculoskeletal system and various diseases:

  • Osteoporosis.
  • Violation of the spinal circulation.
  • Osteochondrosis.
  • Radiculitis.
  • Spondylarthrosis.
  • Herniated disc.
  • Scoliosis

Nevertheless, it is important to understand that the illness is not always due to diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Often the pain is a consequence of the defeat of internal organs:

  • Kidney disease.
  • Diseases of the gallbladder and liver.
  • Problems with the intestines.
  • Interruptions in the work of the heart.
  • Numerous lung diseases.

In a situation where the pain is caused by diseases of the internal organs, the pain does not disappear, whatever the patient does. He can lie, sit, walk, but the intensity of sensations does not get lower. At the same time, the doctors of EUROMEDPRESTIGE do not rule out the reverse situation, when the osteochondrosis of the thoracic section makes itself felt by the pains in the heart area mistaken for angina pectoris.

It is not at all a fact that the projection of the internal organs will coincide with the localization of pain in the back. The pain itself can also be of a different nature. Dull and aching pain between the shoulder blades is clearly indicative of cardiac pathology. Sharp pain, affecting the back and significantly increasing with a change of posture, means lumbosacral radiculitis, disc hernia or sciatica. The pain that throws into the thigh and the groin area is a typical symptom of renal colic.

DIAGNOSTICS

Only a careful examination of the patient will help to find out the exact cause of the disease. Diagnosis involves drawing up a clinical picture of the disease, consulting a neurologist, as well as a number of special methods:

  • Magnetic resonance tomography (gives a good effect if necessary to visualize the spinal cord).
  • X-ray of the spine immediately in two or three projections.
  • Ultrasonography.
  • Inspection of the chiropractor.
  • Comprehensive analysis of blood, including biochemical.
  • CT scan.
  • Densitometry.
  • Somatic examination.

In the process of collecting anamnesis, the doctor finds out the emotional state of the patient and possible stresses, localization of pain in the back and irradiation. He also asks about the injuries and diseases, fixes the relationship between pain in the spine and body movements.

Diagnosis of the spine is aimed at studying the neurological status, muscle tone and signs of tension. In addition, it is important to determine the level of difficulty in movement due to painful sensations when trying to lift a leg. Sensitivity diagnostics are of primary importance, since it can decrease or, conversely, increase.

The goal of a physical examination is the detection of any infections, tumors, somatic diseases that can be expressed through diseases of the back. Only clinical data give grounds to speak about compression and reflex complications of osteochondrosis. However, one must understand that not all problems with the spine signal about osteochondrosis, a disease that affects most adults and people over fifty years of age. Pain syndrome can be a manifestation of a much more serious ailment, so it is very important to conduct the most thorough examination and find the real cause of the ailment. Only in this case the treatment will be really effective.

TREATMENT OF PAIN IN SPIN

Treatment of back pain is always appointed based on the cause of the ailment, which can be different in each case. Basic methods include:

  • Surgical intervention in emergency cases.
  • Manual therapy.
  • Therapeutic physical training (LFK).
  • Reception of medicines.
  • Physiotherapeutic measures.
  • Extension of the spine.
  • Postisomerization relaxation.
  • Organization of interstitial and paravertebral blockades.
  • Various massages.

Treatment, consisting in taking medications, allows you to remove pain and inflammation, significantly improve metabolic processes in the body. Painkillers are divided into two categories – not narcotic and narcotic. Typical analgesics are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. To improve immunity, immunomodulators and a complex of vitamins B and C are used. Narcotic pain medications are used only in extreme cases, when pain is almost impossible to tolerate, and other drugs have no noticeable effect. Drugs are injected with injections in a situation where the back does not ache due to a slight muscle strain, but because of a malignant tumor or a dangerous injury.

Currently, the modern highly effective and safe method of treating problems of the spine, joints, ligaments – shock wave therapy, which is a hardware method of therapeutic influence on tissues by means of impact acoustic waves of a certain frequency, is gaining popularity.

It is impossible to overestimate the benefits of physiotherapeutic procedures, which significantly strengthen the spinal muscles, stabilize the spine and positively influence the metabolic processes. The most effective in this sense is electrophoresis with calcium, as well as paraffin treatment, electrostimulation. If financial possibilities allow, the patient is obliged to visit mud resorts – their positive effect on the way to recovery is scientifically proven.

LFK and massages are also aimed at strengthening the muscles and stabilizing the spine. They significantly reduce the intensity of pain, and sometimes can completely rid of unpleasant sensations. Nevertheless, therapeutic exercise and massage are shown only after the aggravation of pain has been relieved, otherwise the patient’s well-being and the overall clinical picture of the disease will deteriorate noticeably. Therapeutic exercises should be conducted under the supervision of a doctor, any serious stresses are excluded. At the first lessons, most often no movements are made, all you need is to lie quietly on an even, soft surface. At subsequent meetings, the doctor forces the patient to perform small movements in amplitude and strength – first to lift his legs from the prone position, then using special shells. The most basic exercise for strengthening the spine, which causes associations with sipping a cat is the deflection in a position where the patient is on all fours. If pain intensifies during exercise, you should immediately stop exercising.

Surgical intervention to remove the hernia of the disc is indicated only in specific cases, when the spinal cord and the roots of the horse tail are strongly compressed. Without it, also not to do, if the patient is diagnosed with discogenic radiculopathy, accompanied by obvious paresis. The absence of any effect after conservative treatment for three to four months and a large disc herniation leave no choice but to contact the surgeon.

If the main methods of treating pain in the back do not give a tangible result, doctors turn to alternatives, among which:

  • Osteopathic effect
  • Acupuncture
  • Vacuum Therapy

In the East, acupuncture has proven itself hundreds of years ago as a unique remedy for many diseases, including back pain. In the clinic “EVROMEDPRESTIZH” acupuncture is not just the introduction of needles in key points, but also the simultaneous introduction of drugs. In addition, they are irradiated with a laser and are affected by magnetic waves.

In the process of manual therapy the doctor actively kneads the spine with his hands. The goal is to release the nerves, move the incorrectly erect vertebrae and return them to their original position, and also eliminate pain. Despite the similarity of techniques, osteopathy is different: it has no definite contraindications and is often performed even against the background of aggravation of pain.

Vacuum therapy on the principle of use resembles the banks that our grandmothers put to children and grandchildren. In order to relieve the pain, a rarefied pressure, that is, a vacuum, is organized. Due to this, the blood begins to circulate more actively in the affected area, multiplying the metabolic processes many times. At the same time, the doctor moves the cans, thus making a vacuum massage. Vacuum therapy is considered one of the most effective means of getting rid of pain.

If you completely refuse to move it does not work, you need to put on a corset around your neck or on your lower back, and also use special ointments. In addition, compresses, hydrocortisone and novocaine blockades should be made. In the case of pain relief, it is important to begin to strengthen the back, slowly increasing physical activity.

The chronic course of radiculopathies and reflex symptoms requires physical therapy, reflexotherapy, the taking of inflammatory drugs, manual therapy and visits to special spas.

Regardless of the treatment plan developed, each patient must strictly follow the orthopedic correct regimen.

COMPLICATIONS OF NOT CURE SPINE DISEASES

Doctors of the medical center “EVROMEDPRESTIZH” insist on the timely treatment of diseases of the back, as a negligent attitude towards one’s own health can lead to serious consequences.

Instability in the vertebral motor segment, accompanied by excessive mobility between the two vertebrae, is formed as a negative consequence of injuries. It is caused by overgrowing of the ligaments or a sudden restriction of the mobility of a particular vertebra. Instability in osteochondrosis develops against the background of a decrease in the height and volume of the discs. As a result, the ligaments located between the vertebrae lengthen and lose the ability to maintain their position relative to each other. Such instability is always manifested by pain, which becomes stronger in the evening and at times when the patient takes certain poses. Often the patient is confronted with instability in the cervical region – this is fraught with constant headaches and dizziness during head movements.

It is important to give an account of the fact that excessive mobility of the cervical vertebrae in children under five is not a cause for panic, provided there are no birth injuries, any violations in the development of the baby and headaches. However, in any case, only a specialist’s consultation on stabilizing the vertebrae can remove all fears and clarify the situation.

Statistics, conducted by doctors, clearly illustrates the common complications of osteochondrosis – protrusion and disc herniation. Clinically, they do not have special differences, but with hernia the symptoms are much more pronounced, because the hernia is called the contents of the nucleus that fell through the crack of the fibrous ring of the intervertebral disc. The protrusion is a protrusion, in which the disk remains whole outside. In any case, the location of the hernia or protrusion in the posterior half of the disc entails not only pain, but also irradiation of them in the limb. Even with chronic osteochondrosis, with which the patient lives for years, protrusions and hernias only arise as a result of disproportionate axial loads, that is, lifting weights, jumping from height, twisting of the trunk, stresses. Accordingly, avoiding complications will help a way of life in which the patient avoids risk factors.

PREVENTION

Doctors of the clinic “EUROMEDPRESTIGE” are strongly advised to adhere to the following recommendations:

  • If you work in the office, make sure that the chair or armchair is comfortable and well supported back.
  • Correct any curvature of the spine and posture disorders in a child in childhood.
  • Try to keep your back straight, as proper posture removes the load from the spine.
  • Fight with excess weight – fullness negatively affects the spine, because it is in tension most of the time.
  • Make sure that the ration necessarily included products with a high content of vitamins, magnesium and calcium (beans, fish dishes, fresh milk, spinach, bread, nuts, peas).
  • Do not bend unnecessarily.
  • If you are forced to carry weights, distribute them evenly, choose a backpack between the backpack and the bag. Lifting the weights from the floor, lean on the legs, the spine should be relaxed. In doing so, bend your knees and keep your back straight.
  • Pay attention to physical activity. Only regular exercise helps to create a muscular corset. It is not enough to just sit straight and stand near the wall – muscles must remember the posture, even when you forget about it.
  • Grab something from the top shelves, use a chair or a ladder, do not drag.

Only a serious attitude towards one’s own health and adherence to all the recommendations will avoid the occurrence of serious problems with the spine in the future.

What does pain in the stomach say and how to fight it

Posted on December 22, 2017  in Pain

Pain in the stomach is one of the symptoms of a variety of diseases. And often it is not directly related to this digestive organ and indicates problems with others. What can the pain in the stomach say, how to find out its cause and what makes sense to take to relieve the pain?

Causes of pain in the stomach

The first question the doctor will ask you will be the nature of the pain in the stomach. It is the answer that can tell a lot about the disease that caused the appearance of pain.

  • Acute stomach pain, which occurs suddenly, often indicates pancreatitis, cholecystitis and duodenal ulcer.
  • A sudden, sudden pain can be caused by a chemical burn of mucous membranes or poisoning.
  • A very severe sharp pain, which patients describe as “a knife stuck”, is often the result of perforation of the ulcer.
  • A burning sensation is characteristic of an ulcer or gastritis, and dull aching pain in the stomach is a sign of the same diseases in a chronic or initial form. With gastritis, there is a clear connection with food intake: the pain manifests either immediately after eating, or when the person is fairly hungry.
  • Spasmodic, cramping pain is often a sign of an ulcer or inflammation of the duodenum. Such pain is often disturbed at night or a few hours after the last meal.
  • Acute, but brief (a few seconds) “shooting” pain, which occurs when inhaling or abruptly changing the position of the body, is typical for spasms of the diaphragm, arising from inflammation or circulatory disorders.
  • Constant weak aching pain in the stomach often accompanies malignant neoplasms, as well as polyps of the stomach. When cancer spreads to the pancreas, the pain becomes shrouded.
  • Strong cramping pain is most characteristic of gastrointestinal infections.
  • Intensive pain in the upper abdomen, which in a couple of days weakens, but remains constant – a fairly characteristic symptom of the pathologies of the large intestine, in particular, colitis.
  • Severe pain in the navel, which for several hours moves to the right upper abdomen, can talk about appendicitis.

This is not all causes of pain in the stomach.Sometimes such a symptom is accompanied by other diseases – irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal thrombosis, abdominal aortic dissection, intestinal obstruction, stomach trauma, ischemic heart disease, certain nervous diseases, allergic reactions, etc.

Most of the diseases accompanied by this symptom are very serious and require immediate medical intervention. And in some cases, the word “immediate” has a literal meaning – with appendicitis, perforation of ulcers and severe poisoning, the count can go on for hours, and even a small delay can become fatal.

What to do if there is pain in the stomach

Whatever caused the pain in the stomach, it can not be treated independently. Even an experienced doctor with many years of practice can not with full certainty make a diagnosis only on the basis of external signs. And a man without medical education is all the more powerless.

The number of first aid measures that can be provided with pain in the stomach is very small. The most that you can do before the doctor’s arrival is to take an antispasmodic or analgesic. When heartburn is taken antacids – drugs that reduce acidity, or antisecretory drugs that inhibit the production of acid. However, heartburn is not always associated with increased acidity, so taking such drugs can not only be useless, but also worsen the condition.

With medicines in general, you should exercise special care: the effects of medications can distort the symptoms and create difficulties in diagnosing. It is important to understand that modern painkillers are very effective and can completely eliminate the pain in the stomach for a long time. This creates a false impression of recovery. However, the disease does not disappear anywhere. Relieving pain in the stomach with pills, you only lose valuable time: heal the effect, forgetting the reason.

Important!

Do not use a heating pad to relieve pain in the stomach. In some states, heat can actually help and alleviate the pain, but in others (in particular, in purulent inflammatory processes and bleeding) it significantly accelerates the development of the disease and worsens the condition. You can help the doctor diagnose. To do this, you will need to provide him with as much information as possible about his condition. Therefore, before going to the clinic try.

You can help the doctor diagnose. To do this, you will need to provide him with as much information as possible about his condition. Therefore, before taking the clinic, try to remember as much as possible and formulate:

  • the circumstances of the occurrence of pain (before, after or during meals, day or night) and its character (sudden or gradually increasing, sharp, aching, sharp, burning, cramping). Try to remember if the source of pain was moving, and if so, how.
  • diet in the last days before the appearance of pain: what, when and in what quantities did you eat (food and drinks).
  • list of medications that you take (including dietary supplements and vitamin complexes).
  • all additional symptoms. It is important for the doctor to know if you have had nausea and vomiting, bitter taste in the mouth, diarrhea or constipation, belching and bloating, whether blood or mucus was noticed in the stool, rash, fever, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat and dizziness, any other pain head, muscle, articular).
  • recent changes in health status. These include both natural (pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, menopause), and pathological. Remember all the diseases, recently transferred, nervous shocks, episodes of severe overwork. Significant may be factors such as a sharp weight gain or causeless weight loss, the development of anxiety and depression, changes in lifestyle.

Systematization of this information is the best help you can provide yourself. But the diagnosis and treatment should be carried out by a qualified specialist.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of diseases that cause stomach pain begins with a patient’s interview (here the information above is very useful) and an external examination, including palpation of the abdomen, listening to the heart rhythm and working the lungs.

Then the doctor will necessarily send you for the delivery of biomaterial for laboratory tests. Usually this list includes urine and feces analysis, general and biochemical blood analysis, as well as analysis of gastric juice.

For an accurate diagnosis, instrumental studies are also needed – ultrasound of the abdominal cavity organs, less often – a radiograph with contrast, CT or MRI.

In the vast majority of cases, the diagnosis becomes clear after these basic studies. Significantly less serious diagnostic measures, such as laparoscopy, are required, in which a microchamber on a flexible probe is inserted through a small incision into the hollow organs, which allows the physician to assess their condition visually.

Treatment of diseases and conditions that provoke pain syndrome

The scheme of treatment of pain in the stomach depends entirely on the causes that caused these unpleasant sensations. Consider the principles of therapy for the most common causes of stomach pain.

Elimination of heartburn

Heartburn is a burning sensation behind the sternum, in the upper part of the abdomen. The reason is the ingestion of stomach contents into the esophagus. Most often it manifests itself in half an hour after a meal. Heartburn is not an independent disease, but a symptom of such diseases as gastritis, duodenitis, ulcers of the stomach or intestines, cholecystitis and others. Heartburn is often confused with manifestations of certain heart diseases – angina and hypertension, in which there is a similar sensation, in any way, not related to the gastrointestinal tract. However, most often heartburn is the result of gastritis or peptic ulcer of the stomach.

Measures to eliminate heartburn are the treatment of the underlying disease that caused it. In addition, recommended a special diet: for all types of heartburn, you need often (5-6 times a day), but gradually, completely eliminating fatty foods, spices, smoked foods and pickles, carbonated drinks and alcohol, beans and vegetables with high content cellulose (they can cause flatulence and worsen the condition). If heartburn is associated with high acidity, antacids and antisecretory drugs are prescribed.

Treatment of gastritis

Gastritis is called inflammation of the gastric mucosa. Its development can provoke frequent long-term stresses, the presence of pathological microflora, metabolic disorders, chronic infectious diseases, excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, autoimmune diseases, long-term use of certain types of medications (most often non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and some other reasons.

When treating stomach pain caused by gastritis, do not use drugs based on acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen – these are effective pain killers, but they irritate the gastric mucosa. Usually appoint absorbents and funds that envelop the stomach from the inside. If gastritis is caused by a bacterial lesion, a course of antibiotics is needed. Diet for gastritis involves the rejection of acute, fatty and salty, as well as from foods rich in fiber, and dishes that can cause fermentation processes (primarily milk and bakery products, as well as some fruits such as grapes).

Treatment of gastric ulcer

Without proper treatment, gastritis can lead to the development of peptic ulcer. Gastric ulcer most often develops due to the activity of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori or regular intake of large doses of preparations of acetylsalicylic acid. Stress, as was thought for a long time, does not cause a ulcer by itself, but it significantly accelerates the development of the disease. With peptic ulcer, a burning and rather severe pain in the stomach manifests itself approximately 4 hours after eating, is localized in the middle of the abdomen and is often accompanied by a belching, a feeling of heaviness, vomiting or nausea.

Gastric ulcer is a dangerous disease that can lead to complications such as bleeding and peritonitis. Therefore, treatment must begin immediately. Usually prescribe antibiotics for the destruction of hostile bacteria, anti-inflammatory drugs, antacids to reduce acidity. There are also preparations of complex influence: they simultaneously kill the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, and protect the gastric mucosa from aggressive action.

Diet with peptic ulcer should consist of light lean food: take the products in a grinded form (mousse, puree), as the chewing process itself stimulates the production of gastric juice.

Pain in the stomach can not be tolerated!

It must be remembered that pain in the stomach can not be tolerated, suppressed with pills and treated with folk remedies. Many diseases and pathologies that cause stomach pain are characterized by rapid development, so the sooner you seek qualified help, the higher the chances of recovery.

For example, appendicitis is one of the most common diseases that physicians of emergency surgery departments have to deal with – it is easily amenable to drug treatment at the earliest stages. Yes, and a timely operation to remove the appendix is ​​considered relatively simple, and the forecast after its implementation is favorable. However, up to now, about 0.75% of patients who have consulted a doctor only a day after the onset of the first pain die from this disease. The reason – in the very rapid development of the disease (from the first signs to the origin of foci of gangrene is only three days) and the implicit severity of symptoms. About a fifth of patients with necrotic changes in the appendix feel only minor pain and ignore it until it’s too late.

Delay with pain in the stomach is also extremely dangerous in cases of poisoning, ulcers and infections – the consequences can be not only sad, but also tragic.

So, unpleasant sensations in the area of ​​the stomach can testify both to minor malfunctions in the work of the organism, and about extremely serious pathologies. In any case, ignoring the pain is unacceptable. Correctly selected medications and procedures in most cases can eliminate not only pain, but also its causes.