The most disturbing thing about all this is that the main essence of television is not a vision, but a fabricated stream of data that can be somehow processed to protect or impose certain cultural values. Thus, we are faced with an addictive one, an all-penetrating tool that delivers experiences, the messages of which are what those who produce this drug desire. What can provide more fertile ground for the promotion of fascism or totalitarianism? In the US, there are much more televisions than housewives, TV averages six hours a day, and the average person watches him for more than five hours, that is, almost a third of his waking time. Understanding all these facts perfectly, we do not seem to be able to somehow react to their significance. A serious study of the effects of television on health and culture is just beginning.However, not a single drug in history has isolated its consumers so quickly and so completely from contact with reality. And not a single drug in history has succeeded in restructuring in its image and likeness of the values ​​of the culture it has infected.

Television is by its nature a predominantly narcotic means of dominion culture. Control of content, its uniformity and repeatability inevitably make television an instrument of violence, brainwashing and manipulation of personality. / Jerry Mander. Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television (New York: Quill. 1978). p. 197 / Television induces a trance state in the viewer, which is a prerequisite for brainwashing. Like the nature of all narcotic drugs and technology, the nature of television cannot be changed; TV can be rebuilt or reformed no more than the technology of production of automatic weapons.

Television appeared just in time from the point of view of the elite rulers. Almost half a century of the epidemic of synthesized substances, which began in 1806, evoked a feeling of disgust from the sight of human degradation and spiritual cannibalism generated by the establishment of a drug market. Just as slavery, which became uncomfortable, was ultimately odious in the eyes of the institutions that created it, drug abuse finally caused a backlash against this particular form of pirate capitalism. Hard drugs outlawed. The underground markets, of course, flourished. But drugs as an established instrument of national policy were discredited. Opium wars will continue, there will be cases of forcing some governments and peoples to manufacture or purchase drugs,but these wars will be dirty and secret, they will be hidden.

While intelligence services arising in the wake of the Second World War turned to taking the deeply hidden position of the directing minds of international drug cartels, the minds of the public turned to television. Adjusting, adjusting and simplifying, television did its job and created the post-war American culture of Ken and Barbie. The children of Ken and Barbie briefly burst out of the drunken television in the mid-60s, thanks to the consumption of hallucinogens. “Phew!” The lords exclaimed and quickly made psychedelics illegal and stopped all research. A double dose – teletherapy plus cocaine – was assigned to the misguided hippies, and they quickly healed and turned into consumer-oriented yuppies. Only a few recalcitrants avoided this equalization of values. / Martin A. Lee and Bruce Shiain, Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD, and the Sixties Rebellion (new York: Grove Press. 1985). pp.27-35 / Almost everyone has learned to love the “Big Brother” (Father of the People). And about those few who have not learned, the culture of dominion still bangs around like a hen whenever manicly rakes the yard dust of its perplexity about “what happened in the sixties”.


Psychedelic plants and psychedelic experiences were first banned by European civilization, then abandoned and forgotten. The 4th century witnessed the prohibition of the mystery religions – the cults of Bacchus (Bacchus) and Diana, Attis and Cybele. The rich syncretism typical of the Hellenic world became a thing of the past. Christianity triumphed over the Gnostic sects — the Valentinians, Marzionites, and others — which were the last bastions of paganism. These repressive episodes in the development of Western thought firmly closed the doors of communication with the mind of Gaia. Hierarchically imposed religion, and subsequently hierarchically distributed scientific knowledge, replaced any direct perception of the natural mind.

The intoxicating means of the Christian culture of dominion, both vegetable and synthetic, were invariably stimulants or drugs (factory means, means to dull the feelings of anxiety and pain). In the 20th century, psychoactive drugs are used only for medical purposes and for the purpose of raising the tone. But even in the West, there is a thin thread of memories about the Archaic, hierophantic and ecstatic potential contained in some plants.

The persistence of witchcraft and rituals associated with psychoactive plants in Europe for many centuries suggests that the gnosis of entering parallel dimensions by changing the chemistry of the brain has never been completely lost. The plants of European vedovstvo – stinky dope, mandrake and belladonna – did not contain indole hallucinogens, but, nevertheless, were able to cause profound changes in the state of consciousness. The binding in the archaic feminine with the magical region of risk and power is clearly traced by the medieval church as a definite thread.

In the Middle Ages, the witch was still “ hagazussa”, a creature sitting on the hag – hedge, behind the gardens that separated the village from virgin wildlife. She was a creature living in both worlds. As we could say today, it was semi-demonic. Over time, however, it lost the features of this duality and more and more turned into the personification of what was excluded from the culture, only to return again in the said form.

The fact that these plants were the basis for entering into other dimensions was the result of a relatively small distribution in Europe of species containing hallucinogens.


Indo-plant vegetable hallucinogens and their cults are associated mainly with the tropics of the New World. The zone of subtropics and tropics of the New World is phenomenally rich in hallucinogenic plants. Similar ecosystems of the tropics of Southeast Asia and Indonesia cannot be compared in terms of the number of local species containing psychoactive indoles. Why are the tropics of the Old World, the tropics of Africa and Indonesia not so rich in hallucinogenic flora? Nobody can answer this question. But in the statistical sense, the New World seems to be the privileged home of more powerful psychoactive plants. Psilocybin tiny fungi of the Psilocybe species , although it is found, as is now known, among European species, but so far have not been able to convincingly prove that it had anything to do with European shamanism or European ethno-medicine. However, its shamanic use in Oaxaca (Mexico) is three thousand years old. Similarly, in the New World, there are still living cults based on the consumption of DMT (dimethyltryptamine), a beta-carboline group that includes the harmine, as well as an ergot-like complex contained in bindweeds.

The historical consequence of such a cluster of hallucinogens in the New World was rather late discovery of their existence by Western science. This may explain why psychedelics were not included in the list of Western psychiatric medications. Meanwhile, the impact of hashish and opium on the imagination of the romantics, dreams and dreams caused by them, became a model of the action of “psychic drugs” that have fascinated Bohemians since the end of the XVIII century. In fact, hallucinogens were initially considered in Western psychotherapy as substances capable of mimicking psychosis.

In the XIX century, naturalistic researchers began to return with more or less accurate ethnographic reports on the life of Aboriginal people. Botanists Richard Spruce and Alfred Russell Wallace set off on a journey to the Amazon in 1850. / Richard Spruce, Notes on a Botanist on the Rio Negro, AR Wallace, ed. (London: Macmillan. 1980) / In the upper reaches of the Rio Negro, Spruce watched a group of Indians make some unknown hallucinogen. He further noted that the main ingredient for this intoxicating drug was a vine — a woody vine that he called Banisteria caapi. A few years later, traveling around Western Ecuador, he saw the same plant used in the manufacture of a hallucinogen called Ayahuasca(ill. 25).

Ayahuaska continues to this day to remain part of the spiritual life of many tribes of the mountain tropical forests of South America. She also liked the settlers in the Amazon, who created their ethnobotanical medical system to use the psychedelic visions created by it for treatment purposes.

“Ayahuaska” is the word of the Quechua Indians, which roughly translates as “the wine of the dead” or “the wine of the soul”. This term refers not only to the prepared hallucinogenic drink, but also to one of the main ingredients – the wood vine. The tissues of this plant are rich in beta-carboline type alkaloids. The most important beta carboline.occurring in the vine, now called Banisteriopsis caapi, is a harmine. Garmin is indole, but it is not clearly psychedelic unless it is used in quantities approaching a dose that is considered toxic. However, significantly below this level, harmine is an effective short- acting monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor . Therefore, such a hallucinogen like DMT, which is usually inactive when taken by mouth, becomes highly psychoactive with this use in combination with harmin. The indigenous peoples of the Amazon brilliantly used these facts in their search for ways to access the magical dimensions that are key to shamanism. / Richard Evans Schultes. “The Beta-Carboline Hallucinogens of South America”, Journal of Psychoaciive Drugs 14. no. 3 (1982): 205-220 / Combining in ayahuysk plants containing DMT with plants containing MAO inhibitors, they have long used the pharmacological mechanism — the inhibition of MAO, unknown to Western science until the 50s of our century.

In the presence of harmon, DMT becomes a highly psychoactive compound that enters the bloodstream and eventually passes the blood-brain barrier and enters the brain. There, he very effectively competes with serotonin for a place in the liaison team. The state of slow release of DMT lasts from four to six hours and is the basis of the magical and shamanic vision of reality characteristic of ayakuaschero and their circle of initiates. The non-included, or so-called, objective style of anthropological description, is prone to insufficiently emphasizing the cultural-forming significance that these altered states had for the Amazon tribes. Experience the consumption of ayahuasca – organic DMT in combination withBanisteriopsis liana – has many characteristic features that do not resemble the experience of smoking DMT. Ayahuaska is softer and lasts much longer, the subject of its hallucinations is focused on the organic and natural world, which is noticeably different from the titanic, strange and extra-planetary motifs characteristic of the DMT outbreaks. Why there are so serious differences between compounds that seem to be very similar structurally, so far remains an unexplored problem. In fact, the entire relationship between specific visions and their conjunctions is not completely understood. In places of their consumption, ayahuasca is considered a multi-purpose healing elixir and is called in Spanish “la purga” – a laxative. Proven its effectiveness in combating intestinal parasites. Its effectiveness in combating malaria organisms is being investigated. And the long history of its successful use by shamans in folk psychiatry has been documented by Naraño, Dobkin de Rios, Luna and others .

The experience caused by Ayahua, consists of an extremely rich mosaic of visual hallucinations that are very susceptible to “actuation” and control of sound, especially voice. As a result, one of the legacies of cultures consuming ayahuasca is a variety of ikaros, the so-called magic songs. The effectiveness, sophistication and dedication of ayahuskaserodepends on the number of magical songs that he or she really remembers. In these healing sessions, both the patient and the healer take ayahuasca and sing magic songs. This common experience is mostly visual.

The effects of long-term consumption of hallucinogenic indoles on mental and physical health have not yet been fully studied. My own experience of living among the mestizos of the Amazon has convinced me that the long-term effect of ayahuasca consumption is an extraordinary state of health and integration. Ayahuschero use sound and suggestion in order to direct healing energy to different parts of the body and to unexplored aspects of an individual’s personal history, where some mental stress has accumulated. Often these methods are striking parallels with modern psychotherapy methods; and sometimes they seem to reflect an understanding of the possibilities and energies that have not yet been recognized by Western therapeutic theories.

The most interesting from the point of view of the argumentation of this book are the persistent rumors about the states of group intelligence or telepathy, which are among the tribes that are almost not attached to culture. Our skeptical and empirical past will make us reject such claims as untenable, but we need to think twice before doing so. The main lesson we could learn from a psychedelic experience is the extent to which the unchallenged cultural values ​​and limitations of the language made us unwitting captives of our own assumptions.For it is impossible that for no reason the use of hallucinogenic indoles, no matter where they are used, is always equated with magical self-healing and rebirth. A small number of serious mental illnesses among such populations are also well documented.


Not the British and the French, but the Americans created a whole literature about the spell and the whole fantasy of hashish. In doing this, they followed the example of English opiumists like Coleridge and De Quincey. Thus, the style of “enthusiasm and horror,” which made De Quincey’s name well-known, seriously influenced their work. Their descriptions of the actions of cannabis clearly show that they have left the impression of a kind of amazing metaphysical revelation. Today, eating hashish — with the exception of hemp-made homemade cookies made on the occasion of the holidays — is almost unknown as a method of consuming cannabis; For us, hemp is always something that they smoke. A different situation was in the XIX century, when, apparently, hashish was always used in the form of sweets imported from the Middle East. All visions and intoxication do not leave doubtsthat this method turns hashish into a powerful tool for studying the inner possibilities of fantasy and consciousness. The first test run into the immense space of hemp, which appeared in print, was the message of the American traveler Beyard Taylor in Atlantic Monthly for 1854.

The sensation of limitation — the conclusion of our senses within the limits of flesh and blood — disappeared immediately. The walls of my frame fell apart and collapsed; and, without thinking about the form in which I am clothed, even <having lost any idea of ​​form, I felt that I exist in all the vastness of space. […] The spirit (I would rather have said, demon) of hashish completely captured me. I was plunged into the flow of his illusions and helplessly carried them to him, wherever he took me. The thrill that ran through my nerves was revived and sharpened, accompanied by sensations that flooded my whole being with inexpressible delight. I was enveloped in a sea of ​​light, in which pure harmonious colors were born, born of it. Trying to describe my feelings in broken expressions to friends who looked at me incredulously and had not yet experienced the effects of a substance,I suddenly found myself at the foot of the great pyramid of Cheops. The layers of yellow limestone converging with a cone gleamed with gold on the sun, and the whole mass rose so high that it seemed to rest against the blue vault of the heavens for support. I wanted to climb it, and this desire alone immediately transferred me to its summit, ascending thousands of feet above the fields of wheat and palm groves of Egypt. I glanced down and, to my surprise, saw that it was built not from limestone, but from huge square layers of tiled tobacco! Not to put into words the overwhelming sensation of that boundless ridicule, which I then experienced. I crouched in a chair from wild laughter, which subsided only from the dissolution of this vision, like a blurring landscape, until out of the confusion of obscure images and their fragments did not arise another and even more amazing sight.The layers of yellow limestone converging with a cone gleamed with gold on the sun, and the whole mass rose so high that it seemed to rest against the blue vault of the heavens for support. I wanted to climb it, and this desire alone immediately transferred me to its summit, ascending thousands of feet above the fields of wheat and palm groves of Egypt. I glanced down and, to my surprise, saw that it was built not from limestone, but from huge square layers of tiled tobacco! Not to put into words the overwhelming sensation of that boundless ridicule, which I then experienced. I crouched in a chair from wild laughter, which subsided only from the dissolution of this vision, like a blurring landscape, until out of the confusion of obscure images and their fragments did not arise another and even more amazing sight.The layers of yellow limestone converging with a cone gleamed with gold on the sun, and the whole mass rose so high that it seemed to rest against the blue vault of the heavens for support. I wanted to climb it, and this desire alone immediately transferred me to its summit, ascending thousands of feet above the fields of wheat and palm groves of Egypt. I glanced down and, to my surprise, saw that it was built not from limestone, but from huge square layers of tiled tobacco! Not to put into words the overwhelming sensation of that boundless ridicule, which I then experienced. I crouched in a chair from wild laughter, which subsided only from the dissolution of this vision, like a blurring landscape, until out of the confusion of obscure images and their fragments did not arise another and even more amazing sight.

The more alive I recall the subsequent scene, the more carefully I try to restore its different features and separate the many threads of sensations that are woven into one luxurious network, the more I despair to convey its extraordinary magnificence. I was moving in the desert, and not on a rocking camel, but sitting in a boat of nacre, adorned with jewels of extraordinary beauty. The sand was made of golden grains, and the keel of my rook slid on them without the slightest rustle, without the slightest sound. The air glittered from the excess light, although the sun was not visible. I inhaled sweet aromas, sounds flowed close to me, which, perhaps, could be heard in Beethoven’s dreams, but were never recorded by him. The atmosphere itself was an atmosphere of light, aroma, music, and all this together and separately lifted above all that only sober feelings can convey.Before me – it seemed leagues for a thousand – a panorama of rainbows stretched, the colors of which glowed with gems. These were the vaults of living amethyst, sapphire, emerald, topaz and ruby. By the thousands and tens of thousands, they sailed past me, while my dazzling barge rushed through this magnificent gallery; and the panorama is unfolding and unfolding before me. I was surrounded by a wondrous world of bliss, which was perfect, because no sense was left unsatisfied. And, above all this, my mind was filled with a sense of unlimited triumph.and the panorama is unfolding and unfolding before me. I was surrounded by a wondrous world of bliss, which was perfect, because no sense was left unsatisfied. And, above all this, my mind was filled with a sense of unlimited triumph.and the panorama is unfolding and unfolding before me. I was surrounded by a wondrous world of bliss, which was perfect, because no sense was left unsatisfied. And, above all this, my mind was filled with a sense of unlimited triumph.

Such descriptions lead to a clear understanding of why this “artificial paradise” was so attractive to the imagination of romantics; they were made for each other. Indeed, romantics, with their interest in dramatic moods in nature and the cultivation of sensitivity, which their critics called “feminine,” bore all signs of the beginning of a revival of the style of partnership. Starting with the Beyard Taylor report, we find ourselves in the circle of modern works on psychoactive substances and modern experience in getting acquainted with intoxicating substances. Taylor is impressed with the beauty, strength and overall depth of the information, contained in the experience. His approach is not hedonistic, but striving for knowledge, and for him, as for us, the conditions caused by psychoactive substances lead to questions relating to human psychology.


The modern period of psychopharmacology interest in the use of hallucinogenic plants by aborigines is unusually short. Its beginning dates back to the end of the 19th century, when German pharmacologist Lewis Levin took his trip to the USA.

On his return to Berlin in 1887, Levin brought with him a certain amount of peyote-head cactus, which evokes visions from the Sonora Indians, which he received from Park Davis during his stay in Detroit. He set to work, extracting and identifying new compounds discovered by him, and testing them for himself. And a decade later, peyote attracted so much attention that in 1897 Philadelphia storyteller and physician Silas Weir Mitchell became the first gringo to describe drunkenness.

The picture that unfolded in this pair of magical watches was such that I find it useless to attempt to describe what I saw. It is impossible to find a language that would convey to others the beauty and splendor of it. Stars … thin, flowing colored threads … then a sharp rush of countless points of white light swept across the entire field of view, as if invisible millions of Milky Way scattered before the eyes of a sparkling river … zigzag lines of a very bright color … wonderful wondrous charm colors more lively tones – it all passed before me, before I could label anything. Then, for the first time, certain objects became associated with the appearance of different tones of color. A clear gray stone spear has grown to an enormous height and has become a slender, richly decorated Gothic tower of a very complex and clear pattern with a lot of easily dressed statues standing in the aisles or on stone pillars. As I saw, each protruding corner, cornice, and even the surface of the stones at their junctions were staggered or hung with clusters of something that seemed to me huge precious, but untreated stones, something like a mass of transparent fruit.


In 1897, Arthur Hefter, Levin’s rival, became the first person to single out and accept pure mescaline. Mescaline is a powerful visionary amphetamine found in the Lophophora williamsii peyote cactus . It has been used for at least several centuries by the Sonora Indians in Mexico. Its use in Peru, where it was extracted not from peyote, but from other types of cactus, has at least several thousand years.

Psychologist and one of the first sexologists Havelock Ellis, following the example of Weir Mitchell, soon presented his description of the pleasures of mescalin.

A vision never resembles familiar objects; they were extremely clear, but nevertheless always new; they were constantly approaching and, nevertheless, constantly elusive resemblance of familiar things. I have seen marvelous, puffy fields of jewels, arranged individually or in clusters, sometimes sparkling and glistening, sometimes cast in a luxurious subdued radiance. Then they exploded in front of my eyes with some similar forms of flowers, and then they seemed to turn into bright butterflies or innumerable folds of wings of some wonderful insects, wings, the transparent fibers of which were iridescent with all the colors of the rainbow … Some monstrous forms appeared , fabulous landscapes, etc. … It seems to us that any scheme that would define in detail the type of vision in accordance with the successive stages of the action of mescalin should be considered as extremely conditional. The only thing that is typical in terms of consistency is that the most elementary visions are followed by visions of a more complex nature.

Mescalin led experimenters to another chemical agent of “artificial paradise”, more powerful than hemp or opium. The descriptions of mescaline states could not but attract the attention of the surrealists and psychologists, who also shared fascination with images hidden in the depths of the newly defined unconscious. Dr. Kurt Beringer, a student of Levin, acquainted with Hermann Hesse and Carl Jung, became the father of psychedelic psychiatry. His phenomenological approach is marked by descriptions of inner visions. He conducted hundreds of experiments with mescalin in humans. The descriptions given by his subjects are simply wonderful.

Then again the dark room. Visions of fantastic architecture again captured me, endless transitions in the style of Moore, moving like waves, interspersed with amazing images of some fancy figures. One way or another, the image of the cross was extremely often present in the inexhaustible variety. The main lines shone with an ornament, sliding to the edges with snakes or dismissing tongues, but always straightforward. Crystals appeared again and again, changing the shape, color and speed of appearance in front of my eyes. Then the images became more stable, and little by little two huge space systems emerged, separated by some kind of feature into the upper and lower half. Shining with their own light, they appeared in infinite space. Inside they appeared new rays of brighter tones and, gradually changing, took the form of elongated prisms. At the same time, they moved. Systems, approaching one another, were attracted and repelled.

In 1927, Beringer published his “magnum opus,” “Mescaline intoxication,” then translated into Spanish, but never into English. This is a very impressive work, it has created a scientific platform for research pharmacology.

The following year, the publication in English of the book by Heinrich Kluwer “Mescal, a divine plant and its psychological effects” appeared. Kluwer, whose work was based on the observations of Weir Mitchell and Havelock Ellis, again introduced the English-speaking world to the concept of pharmacological visions. Especially important is the fact that Kluver took the content of the observed experiences seriously and first tried to give a phenomenological description of the psychedelic experience.

Clouds from left to right across the entire optical field. The tail of the pheasant (in the center of the field) turns into a bright yellow star, the star – into sparks. Moving sparkling screw, hundreds of screws. A sequence of fast-moving objects in pleasant tones. A rotating wheel (about 1 cm in diameter) in the center of the silver patch. Suddenly in the wheel is the image of God, as it is represented in the old Christian images. Intention to see a homogeneous, uniform dark field of view: red and green shoes appear. Most phenomena are much closer to the distance required for reading.


The study of hallucinogenic indoles dates back to the twenties of our century. A genuine renaissance of psychopharmacology takes place in Germany. In this atmosphere, Levin and others became interested in the garmin, an indole, the only source of which was Banisteriopsis caapi, a woody vine that Richard Sprus had encountered almost 80 years before. Of course, Levin’s last published work “Banisteria Kaapi – a new, intoxicating poison and therapeutic agent” reflects its enchantment with this plant. She came out in 1929. The excitement of Levin and his colleagues was understandable: the ethnographers and among them the German Theodor Koch-Grünberg returned from the Amazon with reports that some tribes used herbal remedies for telepathy to determine the correct path of their society. In 1929, chemists E. Perrot and M. Raymond-Game isolated the active agent fromBanisteriopsis caapi and named it telepatin. Decades later, in 1957, the researchers came to the conclusion that telepatin was identical to harmaline extracted from Peganum harmala,and the name Harmin was officially adopted.

In the 1930s, enthusiasm for the alkaloids of the harmala was generally reduced, as was the interest in ethnopharmacology. But there were exceptions. Among those interested was Austrian emigrant Blas Pablo Reko, born Blasius Paul Reko, who lives in Mexico.

Reko was a person with a wide range of interests. Wandering life led him to the United States, to Ecuador, and finally to the Mexican state of Oaxaca. There he became interested in ethnobotany and what is today called archeoastronomy – the study of the observation of the world of stars by ancient cultures and their relationship to it. Blas Pablo Reko was an attentive observer of the use of plants by local tribes, among whom he happened to live. In 1919, in his refutation of the article by William Safford, Reko said that the shamans of the Mixtec and Masathek peoples still traditionally use a hallucinogenic mushroom rather than peyote to invoke visions. / Cf .: Victor A. Reko, Magische Gife, Rausch’und Betaubungsmittel der neuen Welt (Berlin: Express Edition. 1987) / In 1937, Reko sent a bag of samples of two plants to a Swedish anthropologist and curator of the ethnographic museum in Gothenburg, Henry Wassen found it particularly interesting. One of the samples was the seeds of piole , a visionary bindweed ipomoea violacea, containing hallucinogenic indoles related to LSD.

Another pattern — unfortunately too decaying to identify the species — was a fragment of theononacatl, the first specimen containing the psilocybin fungus, proposed to scientific attention. Thus, Reko began to study the indole hallucinogens of Mexico and laid the foundation for two areas of research and subsequent discoveries, which will eventually be combined when the Swiss chemist-pharmacist Albert Hofmann determines the characteristics of both compounds in his laboratory.


Reko got his sample of a mushroom from Roberto Weitlander, a European engineer working in Mexico. The following year, a small group together with Weitlander’s daughter and anthropologist Jean Bassé Johnson became the first whites to take part in the all-night mushroom ceremony, the velade .

In the end, Wassen sent Reko’s samples to Harvard, where they attracted the attention of a young ethnobotanist Richard Evans Schultz. Schulz was a medical student until he came across Kluwer’s work on mescaline. Schulz thought that the Recole mushroom could have been the mysterious theonakatl described by Spanish historians. Together with an anthropologist from Yelles University, Weston-La Barr, he published a compilation of evidence that theonacatl is some kind of psychoactive fungus.

The following year, Schulz escorts Reco to the village of Ouatla de Jimenez in the highlands of the Sierra Masateca. Samples of psychoactive fungi were collected and sent to Harvard. But in the late 30s more significant forces would come; as in many areas, research in ethnobotany is suspended, and then completely stopped with the outbreak of the Second World War. Ryoko leaves, and when the Japanese consolidate their position on rubber plantations in Malaya, Schulz accepts an invitation to study in the Amazon basin rubber extraction for the Office of Strategic Services established during the war by the US government. But before that, in 1939, he publishes the work “Identification of Theonacatl, Aztec Narcotic Basidiomycitis”. / Richard Evans Schultes. “Plantae Mexicanae. II: The Identification of Teonanacati, a Narcotic Basidiomycete of the Aztec & ”, Harvard University (1939) 7: 37–54 / In it, he quietly offers a clue to the mystery, which at that time seemed nothing more than a subject scholars debate among specialists in central america.


Despite the fact that the luminaries of science left Europe, there was a fundamental breakthrough. In 1938, Albert Hofman was engaged, as usual, in his familiar pharmaceutical research at the Basel laboratory of Sandoz in Switzerland. He hoped to create new tools to alleviate the attempts (labor battles) and childbirth. Working with vasoconstrictor substances extracted from ergot, Hofman was the first to synthesize d-lysergic acid diethylamide tartrate — LSD-25. Being a modest man, he recorded the completion of the synthesis, and the previously unknown compound was cataloged and placed in the repository. There it remained in Nazi Europe five more of the most turbulent years of human history. It is terrible to imagine the possible consequences, become the discovery of Hoffman known at least a little earlier.

Alfred Jerry may have expressed his premonition of this momentous event and allegorically portrayed him in his book Passion, which was considered a hobby for high-altitude bicycle races, written in 1894. In fact, the Dadaists and Surrealists and their predecessors, grouped around Jerry and his “School of Patatysical”, did a great deal to study the use of hashish and mescalin as amplifiers of creative expression. They created a cultural platform for truly surrealistic dissemination of LSD information to the public. Any enthusiast

LSD knows the story of April 16, 1943, feeling the approach of a pre-existent bustle and not knowing that he received a dose of LSD when he came into contact with a substance without gloves, the chemist and almost the counterculture hero Albert Hoffman finished his work early and went on a bicycle through Basel.

I had to stop work in the laboratory after lunch and go home, prompted by a noticeable feeling of anxiety combined with a slight dizziness. At home, I lay down and plunged into a dream-like state of some kind of intolerance intoxicated, characterized by extremely stimulated imagination. In this state with my eyes closed (daylight seemed unpleasantly blinding), I watched a continuous stream of fantastic paintings, extraordinary images with intense kaleidoscopic color play. Somewhere in two hours this state has passed.


In 1947, in the scientific literature, there were finally reports of the unusual discovery by Hofman of a metagalucinogen active at the microgram level. As shown by the events of the 50s, Pandora’s box was opened.

Aldous Huxley wrote “Doors of Perception” in 1954 – a brilliant sketch of the fight of European intellectuals who fought with an awareness of the true dimensions of consciousness and the Cosmos, as well as the amazed ones.

The fact that everyone else sees only under the influence of mescalin, the artist, by nature, sees him from birth all the time. His perception is not limited to being useful biologically or socially. A piece of knowledge belonging to the World Mind, leaks in addition to the restrictive valve of the brain and the artist’s “ego” into his consciousness. This is knowledge of the intrinsic value of all things. For the artist, as well as for the recipient of mescaline, fabrics are living hieroglyphs, which in some unusually expressive way symbolize the incomprehensible mystery of life. Even more than an armchair, although probably less than the altogether supernatural colors in the vase and the folds on gray flannel trousers, they are filled with this “something complete”. What they owe their privileged position, I do not dare to say.

In 1956, the Czech chemist Steven Heat synthesized DMT – dimethyltryptamine. DMT remains the strongest of all hallucinogens and one of the shortest known compounds of this kind. When DMT is smoked, intoxication reaches a peak for about two minutes, and then subsides for about 10 minutes. Injections usually last longer. Here is a description of the discoverer himself.

At the third or fourth minute after the injection, vegetative symptoms appeared, such as: tingling sensations, tremors, mild nausea, pupil dilation, increased blood pressure and increased heart rate. At the same time, eidetic phenomena, optical illusions, pseudo-hallucinations, and then later – real hallucinations appeared. Hallucinations consisted of moving, blindingly painted Oriental motifs; then I saw wonderful, rapidly changing scenes, pictures.

A year later, in May 1957, Valentina and Gordon Wasson published their famous article in Life magazine , announcing the discovery of the psilocybin mushroom complex. This article, like many other brief publications on this subject, brought to the mass consciousness the understanding that plants can cause exotic, and perhaps even paranoid, visions. New York Bank Deposits Specialist Wasson was well acquainted with the driving forces and the troublemakers of the establishment. And therefore, naturally, he turned to the publisher “Life” to his friend Henry Luce, when he needed a popular forum / to announce his discoveries. The tone of the article in the journal contrasts sharply with the hysteria and the hype that the American mass media subsequently inflates. The article is correct and thorough, unbiased and scientific.

The free ends of Wasson chemical discoveries were tied up by Albert Hoffman, who flashed a second time in the history of psychedelic pharmacology with a bright light, chemically isolating psilocybin and determining its structure in 1958.

In a short time in the recent past, from 1947 to 1960, the main indolic hallucinogens were characterized, cleaned and investigated. And it is not by chance that the following decade was the most turbulent in America over the past hundred years.


To understand the role of psychedelics in the 60s, we must recall the lessons of prehistory and the importance that ancient people attached to the dissolution of boundaries in a group ritual based on the consumption of hallucinogenic plants. The effect of these compounds is mainly psychological and is only partly due to culture: in fact, these compounds act as solvents, removing cultural conditionality of any kind. They boost the destructive process of reforming social values. Such compounds should be recognized as agents contributing to the removal of conditionality; revealing the relativity of generally accepted values, they become powerful forces in the political struggle for the direction of the evolution of social images.

The sudden introduction of such a powerful agent of withdrawal of conditionality as LSD had the effect of creating mass apostasy from generally accepted values, especially those based on a hierarchy of dominion dedicated to the suppression of consciousness and awareness.

LSD is a uniquely powerful drug among psychoactive substances. The effect of LSD on a person is found at a dose of 50 micrograms, or 5/100000 grams. About compounds that could cause a similar effect in smaller quantities, it was not necessary to hear. So, theoretically, you can get 10 thousand doses of 100 micrograms from just one gram. This stunning ratio of the physical mass to the market price, more than any other aspect explains the rapid rise of LSD consumption and its subsequent prohibition. LSD has neither color nor odor, it can be mixed with a liquid; hundreds of doses can be hidden under a postage stamp. For LSD, neither the prison walls nor the national borders were a barrier. It can be produced anywhere with the necessary technology and immediately transported anywhere.Millions of doses of LSD can be made and made by a very small number of people. Colossal markets formed around these sources of supply: criminal syndicalism quickly emerged – a precondition for the rise of fascism.

But LSD is more than a commodity. This is a product that destroys the social machine through which it passes. This effect was confusing to all the factions that tried to use LSD to push through some political program.

The agent of withdrawal of psychological conditioning is, in essence, an anti-program agent. When the different parties, trying to gain control of the situation, understood this, they were able to agree on one thing: LSD must be stopped. How and who did it is a living story that was especially well told by Jay Stevens in “Stormy Skies” and Martin Lee and Bruce Schlein in “Acid Dreams”. / Jay stevens. Storming Heaven: LSD and the American Dream (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. 1987); Martin A. Lee and Bruce Shiain, Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD, and the Sixties Rebellion (New York: Grove Press. 1985) / These authors clearly showed that when the methods that worked on colonial empires selling opium in the 19th century, were used by the CIA for domestic purposes – the direction of the state of mind in America during the Vietnam War – they almost completely smashed the entire psychosocial needs.

Lee and Shlein wrote.

LSD consumption among young people in the United States reached a peak in the late 60s, shortly after the CIA organized a series of covert operations designed to split, discredit and neutralize the new left. Was this a historical co-ownership, or did the agency take any steps to ensure the illegal trade in acid? No wonder the CIA representatives launched such an idea. “We are not making targets of American citizens,” former CIA director Richard Helms told the American Society of Newspaper Publishers in 1971. “The people must accept in some way on faith that we, the leaders of the CIA, are honest, dedicated to serving the people.”

Holmes’ assurances are hardly comforting in the light of his own role as the first instigator of Operation MK-ULTRA, which used Americans as guinea-pigs for testing LSD and other substances that change their state of mind.

As it turned out, almost all the drugs that appeared on the black market in the 1960s were marijuana, cocaine, heroin, Pi-Pi-Pi (PCP), amyl nitrate, mushrooms, DMT, barbiturates, laughing gas, “speed” [Methamphetamine. – Approx. ed. ] and many others were previously thoroughly investigated, verified, and in some cases improved by the CIA and military scientists. But none of the methods studied by the agency in the quarter-century multi-million dollar search for the overcoming of the human mind had received so much attention, and none aroused such enthusiasm as LSD-25. For a while, CIA personnel were completely blinded by this hallucinogen. Those who first experienced LSD in the early 50s were convinced that it revolutionizes the mask and dagger case … During Holmes’s tenure as director of the CIA, the agency conducted a massive illegal domestic campaign against the antiwar movement and other dissident elements in the United States.

As a result of Helms’ successful campaign, the new left was in turmoil when he left the CIA in 1973. Most of the official reports related to the CIA’s drug-related and mind control projects were soon destroyed by order of Helms shortly before his departure. The files were destroyed, according to Dr. Sydney Gottlieb, chief of staff of the CIA’s technical service, because of the “growing paper problem”. In this process, numerous documents relating to the operational use of hallucinogenic substances, including all existing copies of the systematic CIA manual entitled: “LSD, some non-psychedelic applications” were lost.

The times were extraordinary, and the situation was further aggravated by the fantasies of those who tried to control it. The sixties can be regarded as a time when two pharmacological minds of the mind collided in an atmosphere close to war. On the one hand, the international heroin syndicates tried to anesthetize the black ghettos of America, while at the same time engaging the middle class in a campaign to support military adventurism. On the other hand, self-organized crime syndicates produced and distributed tens of millions of doses of LSD, while at the same time conducting a well discernible underground campaign to incite hidden psychedelic anarchy.

The result of this collision can be considered in some way to reduce these efforts to nothing. The war in Southeast Asia was a catastrophic defeat for the American establishment, but, paradoxically, hardly any remnants of psychedelic utopianism survived this clash. All psychedelic drugs, even such unknown ones as ibogaine and bufotenin, were declared illegal. In the West, the tireless revival of structured values ​​began; In the 1970s and 1980s, the need to abandon the influence of the 1960s almost got the taste of some kind of mass obsession. During the 70s, a new management program was clarified: since heroin had lost its charm, now it was television for the poor and cocaine for the rich.

By the end of the 60s, psychedelic studies were completely erased from life – not only in the United States, but throughout the world. And this happened despite the tremendous excitement that these discoveries caused among psychologists and specialists studying human behavior, anxiety similar to the feelings that engulfed the community of physicists with the advent of the splitting of the atom. But if the power of the atom, reversible to weapons of mass destruction, was attractive to the establishment of dominion, then the psychedelic experience ultimately looked like a terrible abyss.

A new period of repression has begun, despite the fact that many researchers have used LSD to treat conditions that were previously considered incurable. Canadian psychiatrists Abram Hoffer and Humphrey Osmond tabulated the results of eleven different attempts to study alcoholism and concluded that 45% of patients who used LSD in their treatment showed improvement. / A. Hotter and H. Osmond. New Hope for Alcoholics (New York: University Books. 1968) / Promising results were achieved when attempting to treat schizophrenics, childhood autism, and patients with severe depression. Many of these findings were criticized after LSD became illegal, but new experiments were no longer planned, and the work could not be repeated because of its illegality. The promising use of LSD in psychiatry for the treatment of pain, addiction,alcoholism and depression in fatal diseases, was postponed indefinitely. Contribute to improving our understanding of hallucinogenic plants fell to the share of modest science – botany.