In the center of this peaceful revolution in botany stood a single person – Richard Evans Schultz, the same Schultz, whose Mexican studies were interrupted by World War II. Schultz spent more than fifteen years in the Amazon; he regularly reported to the Office of Strategic Services on the yield of natural rubber, until the invention of synthetic rubber made this work unnecessary; he also studied and collected orchids of tropical rainforests and plateaus. While Schulz was traveling, it turned out that his interest in the experiments of Kluwer with mescaline and the fascination with psychoactive plants of Mexico did not die out in South America.

Years later, he will write about his work among the shamans of the Sibundo valley in southern Colombia: “The shamanism of this valley may well personify the most highly developed psychedelic consciousness on Earth.” What was true of Sibund was, in general, almost as true for the Upper Amazon, and for the next several decades, it was Schultz and his graduate student who practiced and spread the gospel of modern ethnobotany.

Schulz focused on psychoactive plants from the very beginning of his work. He truly understood that Aboriginal peoples, who diligently gathered the whole arsenal of medicinal and medicinal plants, probably best understood their effects on the psyche. After working on peyote and mushrooms, Schulz turned his attention to several types of defiant vision of convolvuli consumed in Oaxaca. In 1954, he published his work on Amazonian nasal (snuff) drugs, and thus heralded the world to the existence of the traditional shamanic use of DMT of plant origin.

Over the next thirty-five years, the Harvard group meticulously researched and published all the uses of psychoactive plants that were in its focus. This part of the ever-expanding work – an integrated set of taxonomic, ethnographic, pharmacological and medical information – forms the basis of the database that is used throughout the world.

The birth of ethnopsychopharmacology took place at Harvard under the watchful eye of Schulz in many respects during those troubled years when Timothy Leary was at Harvard, creating for her, by his efforts to incorporate psychedelic experience into the social agenda, a largely different reputation.


It is doubtful that Liri or Schultz find much in each other. They could hardly be more different – the reserved Brahmin, the botanist Schultz, and the trickster shaman and the social researcher Leary. Liri had his very first psychedelic experience with mushrooms; he later recalled that this first contact with psilocybin in Mexico prompted him to what he called his “planetary mission”. But economic benefit policies have spread to the Harvard Psilocybin project; LSD was more affordable and cheaper than psilocybin. Michael Hollingshead was the person most responsible for choosing LSD as a vehicle used in psychedelic Harvard circles.

got caught by Hollingshead, who became his guru. Leary followed him all day long … Richard Alpert and Ralph Metzner, two closest associates of Leary, had a hard time seeing him in such a helpless state. They decided that he was completely mad, and blamed Hollingshead for this. But their own introduction to the contents of the mayonnaise pod was only a matter of time. Hollingshead gave this tool to members of the psilocybin project, and since then LSD has become part of their research repertoire.


After the suppression of the psychedelic subculture, which began with the declaring of LSD illegal in October 1966, it seems that the impulse to further forging this substance has dried up. The most significant phenomenon in the 70s from the point of view of the public, which was set up on psychedelic searches with previous experiences with LSD and mescaline, was the emergence, since the end of 1975, of various home bred psilocybin mushroom breeding guides. Several such manuals have appeared; the very first was written by me together with my brother and published under pseudonyms O.-T. Ose and O.-N. Eric “Psilocybin: A Guide for Growing a Magic Mushroom.” The book sold out over the next five years in quantities of over 100,000 copies. Some imitation books also went well. So, psilocybin, long sought and familiar to the psychedelic community by the expansive prose of Wasson and Leary, has finally become available to many people who no longer needed to go to Oaxaca in order to gain real experience.

The general atmosphere in the case of psilocybin is different from LSD. Hallucinations occur more easily, and also there is a feeling that this is not just some kind of lens for observing the personal psyche, but also a kind of communication tool to get in touch with the world of high shamanism of Archaic antiquity. A community of therapists and astronauts of the inner spaces emerged around the use of these mushrooms. To this day, these quiet groups of professionals and pioneers of interior spaces constitute the core of the community of people who have accepted the fact of psychedelic experience in their life and profession and continue to struggle with this experience and study in it.

And here we will leave the story of human enthusiasm for plants that intoxicate, cause visions or destroy insanity. Today, we really know no more than our distant ancestors knew. Perhaps less. In fact, we cannot even be sure whether science is suitable for this task – a tool of knowledge, on which we are now so dependent. For we can begin our search for understanding in the cold realms of archeology, botany, or neuropharmacology, but the exciting and wonderful fact is always preserved that all these approaches, when viewed with psychedelic eyes, seem to lead to the inner connection of self and world that we perceive. as the deepest levels of our own existence.


What does the fact that the pharmacology effort to reduce the mind to the molecular structure contained in the brain, has returned to us with a vision of the mind, indicating its almost cosmic proportions? Psychoactive substances seem to be potential agents of our regression back to the animal, and our metamorphosis into the bright dream of possible perfection. “Man for man is like a lost beast,” wrote the English social philosopher Thomas Hobbes, “and man for man is almost a god.” “And never to the same extent as it happens with the consumption of psychoactive substances,” we could add.

The eighties were a period unusually poor in psychedelics. Synthetic amphetamines, such as MDA, occur sporadically in the early 1970s, and in the 1980s, MDMA, the so-called Ecstasy, appeared in significant quantities. MDMA, in particular, seemed promising when used in guided psychotherapy, / Sophia Adamson. Through the Gateway of the Heart (San Francisco: Four Trees Press. 1985) / but these substances quickly became illegal and were driven underground, before they achieved some noticeable influence on society. MDMA was simply the most recent echo of the search for inner harmony, which guides the ever-changing styles of substance consumption and internal research. The drug of the 80s was crack cocaine,whose economic profile and high risk of addiction made it ideal in the eyes of the already established infrastructure to provide for the regular cocaine market.

The cost of training and treatment in the field of psychoactive substances is small compared with current military costs, and it can be sustained. But it is impossible to withstand the effect that psychedelics would have on the formation of our cultural image of ourselves if all substances were legal and accessible. This is a hidden reason for governments to reluctant to discuss the issue of legalization: an uncontrollable change in consciousness, which would be brought by legal and accessible substances, including vegetable psychedelics, would be extremely dangerous for a culture of dominion – an ego-oriented culture.


Until now, public awareness of psychoactive substances was insufficient, and public opinion was easily manipulated. This situation must change. We need to be ready to deal with the problem of our attitude towards psychoactive substances. It is impossible to do this by appealing to some anti-human standard of behavior, which would mean greater suppression of the psyche of the masses by the slogans of dominion. There can be no “Let’s say no to substances!”. Nothing could be more stupid and absurd. And it is not necessary that we should be guided to the path of enjoyment by good philosophies, who see in the unbridled hedonism the Holy Grail of the organization of society. Our only reasonable course is a course on the rehabilitation of psychoactive substances, the education of the masses,and on shamanism as an interdisciplinary and professional approach to these realities. What hurts when we suddenly abuse drugs is our souls; the shaman is a soul healer. Such measures will not immediately solve the general problem of psychoactive substances, but they will retain the much-needed connection with the spirit that we must have if we hope to restructure society’s attitude towards the consumption and abuse of plants and substances.

The disruption of the psychophysical symbiosis between us and the hallucinogenic plants is an unidentified reason for the alienation of the modern world and the cultural attitudes of the mind of planetary civilization. The pervasive attitude of fear regarding psychoactive substances is encouraged and directed by the culture of dominion and its mass propaganda organs. Huge illicit fortunes are cashing in, and governments, as always, wash their hands. This is just the most modern attempt to speculate on the deep innate needs of our whole species in establishing connection with the mind of Gene, our living planet, an attempt to break this need.


There is, of course, a psilocybin group, discovered by Valentina and Gordon Wasson, the magic mushrooms of central Mexico, which almost certainly played a major role in the religion of the Mayan and Toltec civilizations. This group includes the most widely spread mushroom Stropharia cubensis, which was considered the birthplace of Thailand, and now it is found everywhere in the warm tropics.

The plateau of Masatec Mexico is a growing place for two species of bindweed. The properties of ergot that interested Albert Hoffman, which ultimately led to the discovery of LSD, are the properties to reduce smooth muscle and thus be a potential help during childbirth, which was known for a long time by Sierra Masateca’s midwives. The concomitant effect of dissolving the boundaries of perception and the influx of visionary information made these species of convolvulus a preferred substitute for the psilocybin mushroom in those times when the latter was unavailable.

All shamanic plants that cause visions, including the group of bindweed from Mexico and the psilocybin group, with one exception, turned out to be hallucinogenic indoles. This is the only exception – mescaline, which belongs to the amphetamine group.

We should not forget other indoles – short-acting tryptamines and beta-carbolines. Short-acting tryptamines can be taken separately or in combination with beta-carbolines. Beta-carbolines, although hallucinogenic in and of themselves, are most effective when used as monoamine oxidase inhibitors to enhance the effect of short-acting tryptamines, as well as to make tryptamines more active when taken by mouth.

I did not mention a single synthetic substance, as I would prefer to separate the plants that cause visions from what is a drug in a popular way. The planetary problem of drugs is another matter. It has to do with the fate of nations and criminal syndicates who spend millions of dollars. I avoid synthetic means and prefer organic hallucinogens because I believe that the long history of shaman use is the first sign of approval that you should pay attention to when choosing a substance because of its possible influence on personal development. And if people have used the plant for thousands of years, you can be quite sure that it will not cause any tumors or miscarriages and will not create any other unacceptable physical effect.Over time, through trial and error, the selection of the most effective and least toxic plants for shamanic use occurred.

Other criteria are relevant in the evaluation of a substance. It is important to use only those compounds that do not harm the brain, no matter what the relation of the physical brain to the mind, it definitely has to do with the metabolism of hallucinogens. Compounds that are foreign to the brain and therefore difficult to metabolize should be avoided.

One way to decide how long the history of the symbiotic relationship between man and one plant or another is, is to determine how soft this compound is for human metabolism. If, after you have taken the plant, your eyes do not focus for another two days or three days, your knees become as sore as if they were scrubbed with sandpaper, then this is not a soft connection, which is comfortable, like a gloved hand, by the consumer.


These criteria explain why, in my opinion, tryptamines are so interesting and why I argue that psilocybin mushroom was the primary hallucinogen that was related to the emergence of consciousness during the Archaic period. The tryptamines, including psilocybin, have a striking resemblance to human neurochemistry. The human brain, virtually the entire nervous system, works on 5-hydroxytryptamine, also known as serotonin. DMT, closely related to serotonin, is the main hallucinogenic compound, characteristic of Amazonian shamanism and the most powerful of all hallucinogens for humans, and yet, when it is smoked, it stops in less than 15 minutes. The structural similarity between these two compounds may indicate the deep antiquity of the evolutionary relationship between the metabolism of the human brain and these compounds.

Having discussed the choice, it remains to discuss the methodology. Aldous Huxley called the psychedelic experience “gratuitous mercy.” By this he meant that the psychedelic experience in itself is neither necessary nor sufficient for personal salvation. He may not leave any traces. All the conditions for success may exist, and yet they cannot be reconciled. However, it is impossible to fail if all the conditions for success are present, and attempts are made again and again – perhaps some time factor works here?

The good technique is obvious: sit down, shut up and concentrate. This is the essence of a good technique. These trips should be undertaken on an empty stomach, in silent darkness and in a comfortable, familiar and safe situation. “Installation” and “Setting” – the terms coined by Timothy Leary and Ralph Metzner in the 1960s have remained excellent key checkpoints. The installation has to do with the internalized feelings, hopes, fears, and expectations of the psychonaut. The setting is about the external situation in which the inner journey will take place – the level of noise, light and the degree of acquaintance for the traveler. Both the installation and the environment should be most favorable and generate feelings of security and trust. External stimuli should be strictly limited – phones are turned off, noisy objects are muffled.Examine the dark with your eyes closed, waiting to see something. This perception is not just an eidetic hallucination (which arises when you press on closed eyelids), although it begins like it. A cozy, quiet darkness is the preferred atmosphere for the shaman to go on a “single flight to the One,” as the neo-Platonic mystic Plotinus called it.

When you try to convey to people with all accuracy what kind of experience, great conceptual and language difficulties arise. Most of those who read my words at some point in their life had something that they would describe as an experience of experience under the influence of a psychoactive substance. But do you know that your experience will certainly be unique and different from the experience of any other? These experiences range from simple tingling in the legs to staying in titanic and alien spheres, where the mind gets lost and the language is taken away. And the presence of the utterly inexpressible, the “totally Other.” Memories fade, splitting and decaying like yesterday’s snow. The opal shine anticipates neon, and the language is self-made, exaggeration becomes impossible. And here it is important to discuss these points.


What was the atmosphere of this lost world of Eden? What is this feeling, the absence of which has thrown us into history? The onset of action of the indole hallucinogen is characterized primarily by the activation of somatic, some sensations in the body. Indoles are not narcotic drugs, but stimulants of the central nervous system. The familiar feeling of “fighting or flying” is often characteristic of the first wave of somatic sensations associated with the hallucinogen. It is necessary to discipline the posterior brain and just wait out this turmoil in the animal body.

A psilocybin-type compound, which is active through the mouth, becomes quite noticeable in all of its actions for about an hour and a half; a compound that is smoked — such as DMT — becomes active in less than a minute. Whatever the way injected indole hallucinogens, the full deployment of their action is truly impressive. Bizarre ideas, often quite funny, intuitive intuitions, some almost godlike in their depths, fragments of memories and unformed hallucinations – all this claims its right to attention to them. In a state of hallucinogenic intoxication, creative ability is not something that can be expressed; it is something that can be observed.

The existence of this dimension of identifiable meaning, which seems to have nothing to do with personal past or personal aspirations, seems to convince us that we are confronted either with a certain thinking Other, or with deep mental structures suddenly made visible. And maybe with both. The depth of this state and its potential for positive feedback in the process of personal reorganization have long since made psychedelics an indispensable tool for psychotherapy. In addition, dreams, as well as free associations and hypnotic regression, attracted the serious attention of theorists of the mental process, but they are just a slit in the hidden world of psychodynamics compared with the immense vision that psychedelics provide.


The situation with which we now have to deal, is not to find the answer, but that the answer is already there. The answer is already found. It turned out that he lies, as it were, on the other side of the fence of social tolerance and legality. We, therefore, are forced to some strange masquerade. Professionals know that psychedelics are the most powerful tool imaginable for studying the mind. And, nevertheless, these people often belong to the professorship, and they should traditionally ignore the fact that the answer is already in our hands. Our situation is not much different from the situation of the XVI century, when the telescope was invented and it shook the approved paradigm of the heavens. The sixties showed that we are not intelligent enough to take psychedelic instruments into our own hands without certain social and intellectual changes.These changes should be made, starting with each of us.

Nature, in all its evolutionary and morphogenetic abundance, offers us a completely compelling model to follow the shamanic cause of resacralization and self-change, which we have to face. The model of the image of the totem animal for the future man is the octopus. The fact is that cephalopods and octopuses, although they seem to be very modest creatures, have improved the specific form of communication, which is both psychedelic and telepathic, an inspiring model for the communication of the person of the future.


The octopus does not communicate with faint mouth sounds, although water is a good medium for acoustic signaling. Octopus, rather, it becomes its own linguistic sense. Octopuses have a huge repertoire of color changes, all sorts of specks, stains and stripes moving along their surface. This repertoire in combination with the soft-bodied physics of a given being allows it to hide and reveal its linguistic intention, its linguistic meaning, simply by quickly folding and unfolding changing parts of the body. The mind and body of the octopus are one, and therefore equally visible; the octopus wears its tongue like a second skin. Octopuses can hardly communicate. Their use of ink sprays for concealment probably indicates that this is the only possible way for them to have something like their own, private thought.The ink bubble can be a kind of corrective fluid for a clean octopus, showing that he made a false statement. Martin Moinighem wrote about the complexity of cephalopod mollusc communication.

Communication and communication systems in cephalopod mollusks are mainly visual. They include the location of pigment cells, posture and movement. Poses and movements can be ritualized or non-ritualized. Changes of color, apparently, are always ritualized. Different drawings, patterns can be connected in many and often complex ways. They can be replaced very quickly. Since they are visual, they are relatively easy to describe and decipher to a human observer. But there are difficulties.

Readable or unreadable, whether it is true or not, but these patterns-folds of cephalopods, like all other animals, encode information. Since this is a message, whether intentional or not, they seem to have not only syntax, but also simple grammar.

Like octopuses, our purpose is to become what we think, so that our thoughts become our body, and our bodies – thoughts. This is the essence of the more perfect Logos, which the encyclopaedist-Hellenistic forester Philo of Judaia foresaw, the Logos, in whom the Goddess abides, not heard, but visible. Hans Jonas explains the idea of ​​Philo of Judea as follows.

A more sophisticated archetypal logos, free from the human duality of the sign and thing, and therefore not associated with forms of speech, would not require the mediation of hearing, but is directly seen by the mind as the truth of things. In other words, the antithesis of vision and hearing, put forward by Philo, lies generally in the realm of “vision,” that is, it is not a real antithesis, but a difference in degree relative to the ideal of the direct intuitive presence of the object. From the point of view of this ideal, “hearing” here, opposed to “vision,” is understood precisely as representing its conventional form, and not as something genuine, different in its essence than vision. Accordingly, the turn from hearing to vision provided here is a transition from knowing the limited to knowing adequately of the same plan.


The call for the revival of Archaic is a battle call for the return of our birthright, however inconvenient it may seem to us. This is a call for understanding that life without psychedelic experience, on which primordial shamanism was based, is life that has become trivial, rejected, enslaved by the “ego” and its fear of dissolving in that mysterious matrix of feelings that represents everything that surrounds us. It is in the revival of the Archaic that we are actually resolving the historical dilemma.

Moreover, today it is clear that new improvements in many areas – including in the border area of ​​consciousness / technology, in pharmacology of various kinds of synthetic means, in data storage, figurative symbolism and methods of searching for information – are accumulating into the potential of creating truly demonic or the angelic image of our culture. Those who are on the demonic side of this process are fully aware of this potential and are rushing forward in their plans to capture technical heights. This position, having appeared in which, they hope to turn almost all into gullible consumers. In this society of brown fascism, no one can escape the factory of “images”.

The shamanic answer, the Archaic answer, the human answer to this situation should be to find the lever of art and put pressure on it to the end. This is one of the primary functions of shamanism, and this function is perfectly synergized by psychedelics. If psychedelics are exopheromones that dissolve the dominant “ego”, then they are also enzymes that synergize the human imagination and empower the tongue. They make us connect and reorganize the contents of the collective mind in an increasingly amazing, beautiful and naturally practiced way.

If we are serious about reviving the Archaic, then we need a new paradigm that would quickly move us forward through this difficult historical moment that makes it harder and more obstructive, as we feel, to the emergence of a more open, more humane, more caring dimension that seeks to be born. Our sense of political duty, the need for transfiguration or the salvation of the collective soul of humanity, our desire to link the end of history with its beginning — all this should prompt us to look at shamanism as a kind of exemplary model. In the present state of the planetary crisis, we cannot fail to take its methods seriously, even those that can shake our divinely prescribed police covenants.


Even before Humphrey Osmond introduced the term “psychedelic”, there was a common phenomenological description of psychedelics; they were called “means of expanding consciousness”. In my opinion, this is a very good description. Take a look at our planetary situation. If the expansion of consciousness does not arise on the horizon of the human future, what will the future be like? In my opinion, the propsychedelic position is most fundamentally threatened by the establishment, because, if it is thoughtfully and deeply thought out, it is an anti-drug position, an anti-addiction position. And do not be mistaken about this: it is a drug case. How will you be anesthetized? Or say otherwise, how conscious will you be? Who will be conscious? Who will be unconscious?

We need a convenient definition of what we mean by “drugs”. A drug is what causes untouchable, obsessive, and habitual behavior. With obsession, behavior is not examined, not viewed, it is simply manifested. And nothing will be allowed to stand in the way of satisfaction. This is the kind of life for which we have to pay at all levels. Be alert, consume and be alert again and consume. The psychedelic choice stands alone, somewhere in a modest corner, and no one ever mentions it, however, it represents the only countercurrent of the tendency to leave people in “constructed” states of consciousness. But not in their own design, but in the design of Madison Avenue, the Pentagon, five hundred Forchun corporations. This is not just a metaphor – this is how it really happens to us.

Looking at Los Angeles from the aircraft, I note every time that it looks like some kind of printed circuit: all these winding roads and dead ends, all with the same small modules installed in them. Since there is a subscription to “Readers Digest” and television, all of these modules are interchangeable parts inside a huge machine. This is the nightmarish reality that Marshall McCluen, Wind Lewis and others foresaw: make the flock out of the public. The public has neither history nor the future; the public lives in a golden moment created by a credit system that inevitably entangles it with a web of illusions that have never been criticized. This is the final consequence of breaking the symbiotic connection with the matrix of the planet, the matrix of Gaia. This is a consequence of the lack of community; it is a legacy of disharmony between the sexes; it is the deadly phase of a long immersion in meaninglessness and a poisoned existential confusion.

The honor of giving us the means of resisting this horror belongs to unsung heroes — botanists and chemists, such as Richard Schultz, Wassons, and Albert Hoffman. Thanks to them, in this most chaotic of centuries, we have received into our weak hands the means that allow us to do something in our predicament. Psychology is smugly silent. Psychologists have been content with the construction of theories of behavior for fifty years, realizing in their hearts that they are potentially a fatal disservice to human dignity, ignoring the possibilities of psychedelics.


Now is the time to hear, take into account and try to clarify opinions on these issues. For a time, there were general attacks on the Bill of Rights on the pretext of the so-called war on drugs. For some reason, the problem of psychoactive substances has become even more frightening for society, more insidious than communism at one time. The quality of the rhetoric emanating from the psychedelic community should be radically improved. If we do not do this, we will lose the possibility of exercising our birthright, and any possibility of exploring the psychedelic dimension will be closed. Ironically, this tragedy can occur as some kind of footnote to the prohibition of synthetic and addictive drugs. It will never be superfluous to say that the issue of psychedelics is a matter of civil rights and civil liberties. This is a questionassociated with the most important of human freedoms — the freedom of religious practice and the private expression of the individual mind.

Once they said that women should not be given the right to vote, otherwise society would perish. And before that, kings could not cede their absolute power: otherwise there will be chaos. And now we are told that it is impossible to legalize psychoactive substances, since otherwise society will collapse. This is absolute nonsense. As we have seen, human history can be described as a series of relationships with plants, established and torn relations. We explored many of the ways that plants, substances, and policies brutally clashed — from the effects of sugar on commerce to the effects of coffee on a modern employee, from British opium pressure on China’s population to CIA use of heroin in the ghetto to cause controversy and discontent.

Our history is a history of relationships with plants. Her lessons can be made conscious, introduced into social policy and used to create a more prosperous, meaningful world, or they can be rejected, as happened with human sexuality, the discussion of which was forbidden until the work of Freud and others brought it to the general review. This analogy is pertinent, since the enhancement of the ability of cognitive experience, possible thanks to plant hallucinogens, is basically as fundamental to the essence of man as sexuality. The question of how soon we will develop into a mature community that can address these topics depends entirely on us.