Ligament sprains: what to do with sprains, first aid and treatment

Posted on August 11, 2020  in Medical news

Ligament sprains are a common type of injury that results in fiber tearing due to excessive tension or sudden movement in the joint. The most common injuries are the wrist, ankle and knee joint. This type of injury can be recognized by its characteristic symptoms. Treatment is conservative, unless there is a ligament rupture.

The reasons

Ligament tears more often occur in athletes, as well as people who lead an active lifestyle. The reason is mechanical stress that exceeds the bond strength threshold.

It can be a fall on an outstretched arm or leg, an unsuccessful turn of the limb, or subluxation. Due to the unnatural position of the body, the ligament is overstrained, so the ligamentous tissue is stretched or torn.

Predisposing factors:

  •                                 engaging in a traumatic sport;
  •                                 overweight;
  •                                 uncomfortable shoes;
  •                                 congenital or acquired anomalies of tendon development;
  •                                 changes in articular joints caused by infectious diseases, trauma or arthrosis .

Symptoms and degrees

As a result of stretching, the damaged ligaments do not perform their functions, so the joint becomes unstable. When small vessels are injured , areas of hemorrhage appear, which is manifested by hematomas and soreness. Damage to the nerve endings leads to numbness of the limb, loss of sensitivity.

The first symptoms of trauma to the capsule- ligamentous apparatus are a characteristic clap, which is accompanied by sharp pain. Further, signs of a sprain appear within 3 days. It:

  •                                 pain that increases with movement and palpation;
  •                                 instability of the articular joint;
  •                                 restriction of movement;
  •                                 edema;
  •                                 swelling;
  •                                 local temperature rise, skin redness;
  •                                 hyperemia;
  •                                 cyanosis of the skin.

Depending on the severity, there are 3 degrees of sprain:

  •                                 The first is characterized by damage to several groups of fibers. Pain is the main symptom; other signs may be absent.
  •                                 The second degree of damage is severe stretching. Symptoms of a partial ligament tear are pain, swelling, and loss of joint function. Possible injury to the capsule of the articular joint.
  •                                 The third degree is rupture of tendon fibers. As a result of ruptures, acute pain occurs, edema and hematoma appear. Due to the strong pain syndrome, the movements are constrained.

With the first two degrees of sprain of the joint ligaments, spontaneous healing is possible, which occurs after 2-3 weeks. Tendon ruptures rarely go away without surgery.

Depending on the localization of damage, there are such types of sprains:

  •                                 Carpal joint. This type of injury occurs when a fall or a sudden movement of the wrist.
  •                                 Shoulder joint. Ligaments are injured with a sharp swing or jerk with the hand.
  •                                 Elbow joint. It is caused by contact sports or fighting.
  •                                 The clavicular joint. Excessive loads, heavy lifting, sudden changes in position, falls and impacts become the reason.
  •                                 Knee joint. It is accompanied by damage to the meniscus. The cause is the twisting of the lower leg.
  •                                 Ankle joint. Occurs as a result of a fall or bad turn. Read more about ankle sprain →

The last two types of damage are most common.

Preventive measures for stretching the capsule- ligamentous apparatus (KSA):

  •                                 Avoid injury. To do this, you should wear comfortable shoes with ankle fixation, refuse high-heeled shoes. When playing sports, you need to use elastic bandages on the joints. When rollerblading or skateboarding, protect your knees and elbows from injury.
  •                                 Warm up the joints before playing sports. Without warming up, the likelihood of damage to the ligaments is high.
  •                                 Get rid of excess weight.
  •                                 Strengthen the musculo-ligamentous apparatus. This is the prevention of joint damage.
  •                                 Choose a balanced diet. Food should contain a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals.

You need to be extremely careful if the ligaments have already been stretched before. It is important to undergo a rehabilitation course.

Ligaments are highly regenerative, so the prognosis is favorable. With the help of conservative techniques, it is possible to completely restore the working capacity of the limb.


Posted on August 7, 2020  in Medical news

Summer is coming – the period of open sandals and sandals. Alas, many have nails and skin affected by fungus, which does not look very beautiful. It is important to understand that this is not only an aesthetic, but primarily a medical problem.

In some cases, fungal skin lesions can be a harbinger of serious diseases, such as diabetes. Do not start the disease, because the treatment process takes on average a year or more. To quickly get rid of the harmful “neighbor”, take tests for fungus in CITILAB and start treatment now.

How can you get infected with skin and nail fungus?

More than 40 species of various parasitic fungi ( dermatophytes ) are known that can affect the skin and nails. The most common are representatives from the genera Trichophyton Microsporum and Epidermophyton . For growth and reproduction, they use a special substrate – keratin, of which the top layer of the skin (epidermis), hair and nails are composed. Penetrating into the epidermis or into the nail plate, the fungus is fixed there, begins to grow and multiply.

You can get infected from a sick person, through objects (towels, wooden shelves in the bath, sauna, rugs, benches in public pools, manicure / pedicure tools) and through contact with the soil, if you like to walk barefoot in nature.

At-risk groups

The most common types of fungal diseases are mycosis of the skin of the feet and onychomycosis of the nail plates. From the moment of infection until the first clinical symptoms appear, it takes from several weeks to several months.

More often than others, men suffer from fungal diseases. Among women, those who constantly wear pointed shoes, especially those with high heels , are more likely to develop the disease . In this case, the toes are constantly flattened, which leads to friction, small wounds, abrasions, which are the entrance gate for infection.

You can “catch” the fungus in a regular beauty salon during the pedicure procedure, if the master used improperly processed instruments. To remove spores and fungal fragments from metal surfaces of nippers, scissors and tweezers, instruments must be sterilized in a dry heat cabinet. Not all salons have such equipment, therefore they are limited to “soaking” in a disinfectant solution and “drying” in ultraviolet boxes. Such processing does not fully protect against infection.

The frequent addition of a fungal infection can signal the development of diabetes. According to statistics, diabetics are three times more susceptible to mycosis. The fungus can also appear with allergic skin lesions (itching, inflammation, oozing ), combing insect bites; while taking antibacterial drugs, corticosteroid hormones, antidepressants.

Symptoms of mycosis of the feet

  •                       Dry skin, cracks, peeling in the interdigital folds;
  •                       Itching;
  •                       Hyperkeratosis (thickening of the skin of the feet);
  •                       Increase in lesions;
  •                       In some cases, a staphylococcal infection joins the fungal infection, which is quite difficult to cure.

Symptoms of onychomycosis (nail fungus)

Among all nail diseases, onychomycosis is up to 40%. And the share of dermatophytes accounts for up to 90% of all fungal nail infections. The most common causative agents are fungi of the genus Trichophyton .

In this case, the appearance of a fungus may be preceded by injury to the nail or constant softening of the nail plate due to high humidity. This, for example, is possible when wearing the same pair of shoes / sneakers daily.

As the infection progresses, the color of the nail changes – part of the nail becomes yellow, grayish or whitish. Over time, the stain grows, and the nail itself thickens – subungual hyperkeratosis develops .

Diagnosis of fungal diseases

To diagnose mycoses and onychomycosis , CITILAB uses special tests for the detection of fungi. Biomaterial (fragments of hair, nail plates, skin particles) is analyzed under a microscope. If the infection has occurred and the filaments of the mycelium (the body of the fungus) are visible, the diagnosis is confirmed.

How to protect yourself from fungus

  •                       After a bath or shower, wipe the skin of your feet dry, especially in the interdigital spaces;
  •                       If you wear closed shoes, change socks / knee-highs daily;
  •                       Change your shoes every two to three days, do not wear the same pair every day;
  •                       Do not go barefoot in public places (swimming pool, steam room, sauna, fitness club);
  •                       If someone in your family has a fungal disease, give them a separate set of towels and linens. Wash them separately at maximum temperature;
  •                       If the skin of the feet or nails on one leg is affected by fungus, use two different sets of manicure / pedicure tools so as not to transfer the infection to healthy areas;
  •                       If you have diabetes, keep your blood sugar under control. “High sugar” reduces the rate of healing of skin wounds (“diabetic’s foot”), which facilitates the access of fungal infections.

Be healthy!


Posted on August 3, 2020  in Medical news

If you refuse sandwiches with white bread and smoked sausage, after a year you will find that your weight has decreased. And this is without any effort.

If you give up sandwiches with white bread and smoked sausage, after a year you will find that your weight has decreased. And this is without any effort. But for many, a sandwich is a favorite “dish” for breakfast or a snack. What to do? Do not be discouraged, it can be made “safe” for the figure. The memo is in front of you.

Bread. Instead of fluffy wheat bread, choose rye, multigrain, or sourdough bread. These types have more fiber, which is necessary for normal digestion and vitamins.

Greens and vegetables. Lettuce, arugula , lettuce, crispy thin slices of fresh cucumber, avocado, tomatoes are an excellent filler for a healthy sandwich. They contain a large amount of folic acid, vitamin C, rutin, which strengthen the walls of blood vessels.

Meat. Replace smoked sausage with lean meat (turkey, beef, pork tenderloin, lamb fillet, rabbit). It is a source of complete protein, iron, vitamin B12 and calcium. They are necessary for blood formation, prevention of anemia and strengthening of bone tissue.

It is better to boil the meat, grill or fry in a “dry” frying pan without oil.

Sauce. Do not overuse commercial sauces, they are too high in preservatives, sugar and extra calories. Make homemade sauce. Take low-fat yogurt without additives, drip olive oil and lemon juice into it, you can add your favorite spices or fresh herbs.

Proper nutrition is an important part of a weight loss program, so the diet should be balanced. But sometimes it happens that the weight “does not go away” even when a person eats rationally. In this case, it is important to exclude various diseases that interfere with weight loss. Especially for this, CITILAB doctors have developed a complex “Slim figure”

It includes 13 different indicators, including hormones, the imbalance of which can affect weight fluctuations.

Top 3 healthy options for a snack or breakfast

1. Sandwich “Green”
 Ingredients: avocado, cucumber, tomatoes, mozzarella , sourdough bread.

For the sauce, mix yogurt with lemon juice and freshly chopped basil and tarragon. Spread the sauce on the bread, put the filling on top and cover with the other half of the bread.

2. Classic Greek Pita Gyros Ingredients: grilled chicken breast, red bell pepper, purple onion, lettuce.

For the sauce, combine Greek yogurt, chopped dill and black pepper. Make a cut in the pita , brush the inside of the pita with sauce, and then gently place lettuce, bell peppers, onions and chicken breast inside the cut.

3. Sandwich with hummus Ingredients: red pepper grill, hummus , avocado, ricotta cheese , rye bread.

Spread hummus on the bread, top with a layer of ripe avocado mashed with a fork, ricotta , fresh basil leaves and thin slices of grilled pepper.

Be always active!


Posted on July 30, 2020  in Medical news

Oily skin, acne, unpleasant itching, redness – all this can be the cause of exacerbation of existing skin diseases. It is important to immediately exclude parasitic infection.

To eliminate relapses of atopic dermatitis, rosacea and other skin diseases , special pharmacy cosmetics and medicines are often used (they are prescribed only by a doctor).

But for some, symptoms progress. Unbearable itching appears in the eyebrows, nasolabial folds, along the edge of the eyelashes. The complexion changes, it becomes grayish. The skin becomes bumpy. Often, against the background of these symptoms, blepharitis or blepharoconjunctivitis develops . In this situation, it is better to immediately exclude the parasitic infection. Since the cause of this condition may be the demodex subcutaneous mite .

What is demodicosis

Acne – a skin disease, which provokes opportunistic mite Zheleznitsa acne kind of Demodex ( Demodex ). There are two types of parasites on humans: Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis . Mites parasitize in the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. The main condition for their existence is a sufficient amount of sebum . Therefore, Demodex prefers to “settle” on the skin of high fat content. A favorite place for localization of demodex is the skin of the eyelids and forehead, above the eyebrows, folds around the nose and mouth, chin, external auditory canal.

According to statistics, about 60% of people are infected with demodex , but not everyone has the disease.

The development of the disease can be provoked by:

– reduced immunity;

– hormonal disorders;

– stress;

– chronic infection;

– Excessive consumption of caffeine-reducing drinks (tea, coffee, energy);

– abuse of solarium, tanning;

– long-term work at the computer;

– the use of cosmetics based on hormonal components (including herbal).

More often than others, demodicosis develops in women (compared to men) and in those who suffer from atopic dermatitis, rosacea (it has been proven that in 84% of cases rosacea is provoked by mites of the genus Demodex ). Parasites are transmitted from an infected person to a healthy person, for example, by kissing and touching the skin.

The disease has a pronounced seasonal character: most often the disease worsens in the spring. And that’s why. An increase in air temperature and humidity is one of the triggers for the development and reproduction of the tick. He also feels great, “living” in bottles and jars of creams containing a large amount of oils and animal fats, including petroleum jelly. But at temperatures below 14 ° C, the mite “falls asleep” and dies.

What is the danger of demodicosis and can it be cured

If the mite begins to multiply rapidly, its waste products accumulate in the skin. In large quantities, they lead to disruption of various functions of the skin, primarily protective, and the development of hypersensitivity. In addition, moving from the hair follicle to the surface of the skin, the parasites carry a huge number of bacteria that cause inflammation.

One of the serious consequences of demodicosis is damage to the eyes and eyelids. The tick causes blepharoconjunctivitis , keratitis, nonspecific inflammatory changes in the skin around the eyes. At the same time, slight swelling, redness and roughness of the eyelids of the eyelid conjunctiva, itching and fatigue, and dry eye syndrome appear. Plaque forms along the edge of the eyelids and scales around the eyelashes.

It is important to understand that demodicosis is difficult to treat, the disease is chronic. And even after a long therapeutic course, a complete cure does not occur.

To achieve a long period of remission, according to the doctor’s prescription, external imidazole derivatives, topical antibiotics ( clindamycin , erythromycin, etc.), disinfectants (sulfur, zinc, tar preparations), antiparasitic agents ( benzyl benzoate , crotamiton ), aromatic retinoids are used .

It is also recommended to limit the diet of spicy, spicy foods, fast carbohydrates (baked goods, sweets, fast food ).

Special cosmetic care is required. After washing, do not dry yourself with a towel, but use disposable paper napkins. Use hypoallergenic cosmetics with SPF filters that protect the skin from overheating. Clean makeup brushes and sponges daily with disinfectants.

Diagnosis of demodicosis

To identify Demodex , laboratory diagnostic methods are used. They are informative and do not require special training from the patient. Eyelashes and / or skin scrapings are used. The biomaterial is examined under a microscope for the detection of parasites and the degree of infection, in the case of demodectic skin.

If you notice that there are problems with the skin – it has become more oily, pores are noticeable, eyelashes fall out, in the evening there is a feeling of tickling and crawling on the skin, itching occurs in the eyebrows, nasolabial folds – perform tests to identify the demodex subcutaneous mite in CITILAB.

Important to know !

Before conducting the study the women are not recommended to use any makeup , in fact including decorative ( Tone cream , mascara , blush and others .)


demodex and fungal infection, it includes the most important biochemical indicators, including hormones.

It is convenient that as soon as the ordered studies are fully prepared, the doctor will call you and comment on the test results. You will also find out which doctor should be consulted for further examination and treatment.

Always be healthy and beautiful!


Posted on July 26, 2020  in Medical news

The World Health Organization annually updates the list of global threats to humanity. This year, along with cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, he got a refusal of vaccinations.

People who speak out against vaccinations and do not vaccinate their children – anti- vaccines , not only risk themselves, but also put others at risk. Moreover, the threat is quite real, just remember the autumn measles epidemic in Europe and Ukraine. Increased migration flows only exacerbate the situation.

How to sign up for a vaccination?

All vaccinations for adults included in the National Preventive Vaccination Schedule can be delivered free of charge at the district polyclinic. All you need to take is a compulsory medical insurance policy, make an appointment with a therapist and get a referral to the vaccination room. Vaccinations are given strictly on the day of examination by a therapist.

Vaccination is carried out against the background of complete health. It is not recommended to vaccinate during exacerbations of chronic diseases or ARVI / ARI. In this case, it is necessary to wait 10-14 days after the illness and then go to the doctor.

Information about all vaccinations with the name of the vaccine is entered into your personal Certificate of Preventive Vaccinations, and endorsed by the medical institution. The certificate remains in your hands and is valid throughout Russia.

Preventive vaccinations from the National Calendar

Diphtheria, tetanus

Revaccination is repeated every 10 years for adults over 18 years of age. A combined vaccine is used. There are no absolute contraindications.

Diphtheria is spread from person to person. The disease is very contagious and insidious: at the initial stage, the infection is disguised not just as an acute respiratory disease, but as a lung acute respiratory infection. Further – it resembles the symptoms of angina. The main danger of diphtheria is severe complications for the heart, kidneys, blood coagulation system, and the respiratory system.

To assess the level of immunity and protection against diphtheria before vaccination, you can perform the test for “Antibodies to diphtheria toxoid (RPHA, total)” in CITILAB (research code 45-20-401).

Hepatitis B virus

Unvaccinated adults should be vaccinated regularly from 18 to 55 years of age. Depending on the order of revaccination and the strength of the immune system, it is repeated after 3 or 5 years. You can check whether immunity has formed using a laboratory test at CITILAB. This is the Anti- HBs Antibodies total test . Read more about the hepatitis B virus in a separate article .


A viral, highly contagious disease. In adults who have not been vaccinated with the measles vaccine, it is more severe than in children and causes serious complications in the form of pneumonia, lesions of the cornea of ​​the eye, meningitis, meningoencephalitis . Immunity after vaccination lasts 12 years or more. To assess the strength of post-vaccination immunity to measles virus in CITILAB, you can perform the study “Antibodies to measles virus IgG ” (studies 43-20-110).


The rubella virus is especially dangerous to the fetus. Therefore, the rubella vaccine is recommended to be given to all women from 18 to 25 years old who are planning a pregnancy, who have not previously been ill, not vaccinated, vaccinated once, or who have no information about rubella vaccinations.

When planning a pregnancy, before vaccination, you can perform a test in CITILAB for the presence of immunity to rubella: “Rubella antibodies IgG .


Dangerous for its complications. Therefore, the vaccine is recommended to be repeated annually. The vaccination is especially recommended for those who have chronic diseases of the lungs, cardiovascular system, diabetes mellitus, obesity, as well as older people over 60 years old.

Additional vaccinations

Vaccinations not included in the National Preventive Vaccination Schedule are paid additionally. These include pneumococcal infection, hepatitis A, tick-borne encephalitis, shigillosis (dysentery).

Doctors of CITILAB remind that timely vaccination is one of the most effective ways to prevent serious infections and their spread.

Be healthy!





Posted on July 22, 2020  in Medical news

Unmotivated headache, “jumping” pressure, loss of energy, malaise and lethargy, insomnia – many blame bad weather for this. But the problem lies in the disruption of the autonomic nervous system.

Vegetative dysfunction or vegetative-vascular dystonia (VVD) is far from safe for humans. In addition to unpleasant symptoms that reduce the quality of life, in some cases, VSD is the first harbinger of hypo – and / or hypertension, atherosclerosis. To prevent the development of these serious diseases, it is important to understand the causes in time.

The main causes of vegetative-vascular dystonia

Frequent causes of disorders in the functioning of the autonomic nervous system are:

  •                       constant stress, overwork, lack of sleep and rest;
  •                       diseases of the endocrine system, kidneys;
  •                       hereditary predisposition.

Excessive emotional stress, worries, for example, about work, personal life, fear of the future – all this stimulates the production of the stress hormone cortisol. Constantly elevated levels of this hormone enhances the functioning of the autonomic nervous system. As a result, headache, nervousness, insomnia, anxiety appear; in some cases, aggression.

Studies with VSD

Before you start taking sedatives on your own, it’s important to measure your blood cortisol levels. In this case, the selection of pharmacotherapeutic agents will be reasonable and effective. CITILAB is conducting research for this .

To avoid the additional stress associated with the trip to the clinic, call the nurse at home. She will make all the necessary manipulations, and then transport him to the laboratory for research. You will receive the test results in your personal account on the website or by e- mail .

But not only an increased level of cortisol can be the cause of vegetative-vascular dystonia. Low or high (“jumping”) pressure, which many complain about in the autumn-winter period, may be due to a lack / excess of fluid in the body. And the point here is not how much water you use (maybe a sufficient amount), but the imbalance of the hormones renin and aldosterone.

Renin controls blood pressure levels. Increased or decreased levels indicate abnormal blood pressure, possible kidney failure, and kidney damage. If the production of renin is disturbed, more aldosterone is produced, a steroid hormone that stimulates the elimination of excess fluid from the body. As a result, edema, increased fatigue, and increased blood pressure appear.

The study identifies these disorders and allows the doctor to prescribe the correct pharmacotherapeutic support for your better well-being.

Be healthy!


Posted on July 18, 2020  in Medical news

The first snow and fresh frosty air do not bring joy to everyone. In some people, they can cause blisters on the skin that resemble a plant burn. This is an allergy to cold or cold urticaria.

Such a reaction to low temperatures can appear not only due to snowflakes. Washing your face with cold water, drinking cold drinks, including ice, can also provoke an allergic reaction.

Cold urticaria symptoms

Cold urticaria symptoms occur almost immediately after contact with an allergen – water, ice, sleet. Most often, it affects young women between the ages of 18 and 25. Distinguish between hereditary cold urticaria (occurs less often) and primary (acquired) – is recorded more often. Some experts associate the appearance of primary urticaria with a recent infection, for example, with diseases caused by Epstein- Barr viruses , herpes virus; diseases of the autoimmune system, systemic vasculitis . But more often, such a reaction is a consequence of the individual characteristics of a person.

Signs of cold urticaria:

  •                       itching, unpleasant burning sensation of the skin after contact with cold water, ice, snow; a reaction can also occur after going out into the frosty air;
  •                       blisters, redness, and / or swelling of the skin; in some cases, Quincke’s edema .

Even the most casual walk without gloves can lead to cold allergies. Rashes and redness usually appear on the hands and face.

Usually, to clarify the diagnosis, the doctor conducts a special test – a provocative ice test. A small ice cube enclosed in a plastic bag is applied to the skin. The result is evaluated after 10 minutes. With a positive reaction, a blister or severe redness occurs at the application site. In addition, blood tests (general, biochemistry), studies to determine the level of serum immunoglobulins, fibrinogen protein, the detection of antibodies to the Epstein- Barr virus, hepatitis C and B, chlamydia are often prescribed .

Safety regulations

To minimize the manifestations of cold urticaria, it is recommended:

  •                       avoid hypothermia;
  •                       take a warm shower, rinse your face with warm water;
  •                       clothes should be made of cotton or soft wool, not synthetic !;
  •                       in winter, be sure to wear a hat and a scarf;
  •                       exclude cold food / drinks from the diet;
  •                       exclude outdoor sports in the cold season;
  •                       use protective creams and balms for the face, lips and hands (preferably from the segment of pharmacy cosmetics);
  •                       use antihistamines during exacerbation of urticaria according to the scheme prescribed by the attending physician.



Posted on July 14, 2020  in Medical news

“Autumn time, charm eyes …” It seems that among the classics it was customary to
admire the fall. But which of us can confess our sincere love for
this time of year?

In the landscapes there is neither spring freshness, nor summer
revelry of colors, nor winter purity. There is little sun, a
lot of rain and slush . And the mood to match the weather – it is in the fall that many complain of
a breakdown, fatigue, drowsiness and general weakness.
However, you should not attribute the bad mood only to the weather – it
may well turn out to be a symptom of a dangerous disease.

The thyroid gland is a small organ, but it is an extremely important
element of the entire endocrine system. And if it is not in order, then the
whole organism suffers. The insidiousness of the thyroid gland is that
suspecting something is amiss is not so simple – the diseases do not have vivid
symptoms. And in the absence of adequate treatment, they are fraught with serious
complications. The thyroid gland uses iodine to produce
iodine-containing hormones that are involved in the regulation of metabolism,
which means they affect the body as a whole. Thyroid is naughty – and a
slender beauty will turn into an apathetic obese woman, and an energetic
young man – into a puffy neurotic. The good news is that
thyroid disease can be treated very well. It is only important to
recognize them in time .
Laboratory tests play a decisive role in identifying thyroid dysfunctions . You just need to
measure the level of certain hormones and antibodies in the blood. You can check
if everything is in order with the thyroid gland in the CityLab.


According to the World Health Organization, in 2014, about 9% of the adult population of the planet suffered from it. Specialists note an increase in the incidence among children, which makes this problem even more relevant.

Diabetes is a disease of the endocrine system, in which there is an increased level of sugar in the blood due to a deficiency of insulin (the hormone that is responsible for the “processing” of glucose). Its lack can be absolute when it comes to problems with the insulin “factory” – the pancreas. Doctors in this case are diagnosed with type I diabetes. The second option: insulin is produced in sufficient quantities, but the mechanism of its interaction with cells is disrupted. Thus, insulin is enough, but it “does not work.” This condition is called insulin resistance. Until a certain point, the body by inertia continues the production of the hormone, but over time it decreases significantly. So in a very simplified form, you can describe the course of type II diabetes mellitus, which is the most common pathology.

The list of complications of this disease is very wide, and all of them are somehow related to excess glucose in the blood. The great Hippocrates made this diagnosis, tasting sugar in the urine of his patient. Fortunately, today laboratory diagnostics has stepped far forward. In the arsenal of doctors there are many types of studies that can speak with high confidence about the development of diabetes mellitus, and also allow you to track the dynamics of the pathological process. “CityLab” offers to use the comprehensive study “ Risk of Diabetes” , which includes all the diagnostically important tests necessary to suspect and detect the disease at an early stage:

The level of glucose in the blood is the starting point for the doctor in the process of differential diagnosis.

HBA1c (Glycated Hemoglobin) and fructosamine – will “tell” the doctor about the increased level of glucose in the body, even if a single measurement of fasting blood glucose is normal.

Determining the concentration of Insulin and the C-peptide (this is part of the insulin molecule) helps to evaluate the endocrine function of the pancreas.

Antibodies to β-cells of the pancreas and Antibodies to glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) – can “predict” the development of diabetes mellitus sometimes several years before it begins.

And if problems with glucose metabolism in the body have already begun, you need to remember that in the first place, eyes and kidneys are at risk. Therefore, it is important to visit an optometrist and regularly do a urine test:

Determination of albumin in urine is a diagnostic criterion for diabetic nephropathy (impaired renal function due to diabetes).

A blood glucose test can be called a classic in diagnosing diabetes. However, its results are not always clear. Glucose levels can vary depending on the general physical condition of a person, due to stress, individual characteristics of the body and after eating. This is why glucose is usually measured on an empty stomach. But in an empty stomach, glucose levels may be normal for some time after the process of glucose utilization in the body is already violated.

Determining the level of glycated hemoglobin HbA1c (a hemoglobin molecule associated with glucose) is devoid of these disadvantages – its concentration is not subject to daily and other fluctuations, does not depend on food intake. Therefore, this method is recognized by WHO as the “gold standard” in the diagnosis and control of diabetes. The life span of an erythrocyte (a blood element containing hemoglobin HbA1c) is 2-3 months. Thus, the doctor gets the opportunity to get information about the average glucose level in the body during this entire period.

Determining the level of fructosamine is a similar method in which the concentration of the products of the interaction of glucose with proteins is evaluated . It reflects the glucose content over the past 3 weeks. This parameter is most effective in the early stages of diabetes.


Posted on July 10, 2020  in Medical news

Worldwide, October is the month of the fight against breast cancer. It is the most common cancer among women. Modern laboratory diagnostics can detect cancer at an early stage, which is the key to a successful cure.

In Russia, more than 50 thousand new cases of breast cancer are noted annually. From year to year, experts note an increase in incidence. Of course, this is a rather alarming trend, however, it is largely due to the success of modern medicine. Diagnostic methods are becoming more sophisticated, it gives more chances to detect cancer at an earlier stage, which, in turn, is the key to a successful cure in more than 90% of cases. In order to identify the disease “in the bud,” you need to regularly visit specialists. If you are over 40 years old, you need to visit a mammologist at least once a year.

Along with instrumental diagnostics (ultrasound, mammography, MRI), in the arsenal of doctors there are modern laboratory research methods, in particular, the determination of tumor markers in the blood. Oncomarkers are specific compounds that signal the onset and development of a pathological process in the body. One of them is called cancer-embryonic antigen (CEA). It is produced in fetal tissues during embryonic development. In adults, CEA is found only in very small quantities. A slight increase in the level of CEA may be associated with benign diseases of the internal organs, but this can also speak of oncology. To understand, it is necessary to repeat the study upon receipt of an increased result in order to see the dynamics. With the development of a malignant tumor , significant increases are usually observed – at times and tens of times from the reference interval. The analysis on CEA is carried out with suspected neoplasm in the mammary gland, colon, rectum, stomach, pancreas, ENT organs, esophagus.

Another tumor marker that is used in the diagnosis of breast cancer is called CA 15-3. Behind this purely scientific name is a real opportunity to monitor the course of the disease and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The antigen is secreted from carcinoma cells (a tumor developing from epithelial cells) of the mammary gland. The dynamics of the marker level is of great importance for diagnosis, allowing you to detect the progression of the disease in time. In relapses or metastases, the concentration of CA 15-3 usually rises much earlier (almost immediately when the process appears at the molecular level), while up to the appearance of other clinical symptoms, it can take up to several months. Up to 80% of women with breast cancer metastases have a significant increase in the level of this tumor marker .

” Sitilab ” joins the month of the fight against this terrible disease, and offers take advantage of special conditions for research within the federal campaign “Protect breast cancer.” When conducting a comprehensive analysis on tumor markers CEA and CA 15-3, a 10% discount is provided.

Recommended Studies:

● Cancer-embryonic antigen (CEA)

● Oncomarker CA 15-3

Pelvic fractures

Posted on July 6, 2020  in Pelvic diseases

Pelvic fractures present very severe injuries. According to various authors, they make up from 0.3 to 6% in relation to all fractures.

Classification of pelvic fractures

The various types of pelvic bone fractures can be combined into two main groups: 

1) fractures that do not violate the integrity of the pelvic ring,

2) fractures that violate the integrity of the pelvic ring.

The first group is divided into the following subgroups: 

1) transverse fracture of the sacrum;

2) tailbone fracture;

3) acetabular fracture;

4) transverse fracture of the ilium wing;

5) a fracture of one of the branches of the pubic or ischium;

6) fracture of the iliac crest;

7) fracture of the awns;

8) fracture of the tubercle of the ischium.

Fractures of the second group are divided into five subgroups: 

1) a vertical fracture of the anterior half ring:

a) a fracture of both branches of the pubic bone,

b) the pubic and ischial bones (single and bilateral);

2) vertical fracture of the posterior semicircle:

a) fracture of the iliac wing,

b) oblique and vertical fracture of the sacrum;

3) a double vertical fracture of the posterior and anterior half rings of the Malgen type ;

4) multiple fractures of the pelvic ring;

5) fracture -dislocation and dislocation of the pelvic bones.