We are used to searching online for ANSWERS TO MOST OF THE QUESTIONS OF EXCITING US . In the new series of materials, we ask just such questions: burning, unexpected or common – to professionals in various fields.
Last year, we talked about the risk of melanoma – an extremely dangerous skin tumor – and how to reduce this risk: you need to use sunscreen, regularly examine the skin, ideally undergo screening with photographs, and moles that seemed suspicious to the doctor should be removed and sent to research in the laboratory. These rules are suitable for those who are not worried about anything, and are especially important for those with more than fifty moles (although recently there is evidence that a much smaller number requires close attention).
But what if you injured a pigmented formation on the skin (for example, accidentally injured a mole with your fingernail or the strap of a swimsuit)? Is it more dangerous than a simple scratch? Do I need to go to the doctor right away and take action? We asked these questions to experts.
dermatovenerologist, cosmetologist of the Chaika clinic
Simple nevi, or moles, are the most common benign skin tumors. Most often, they look like small flat spots, and with age they can turn pale and slightly rise above the surface, growing strongly in older people. The growth of nevi is associated with hormonal factors (therefore, moles can appear or increase in adolescents and during pregnancy) and, of course, with exposure to sunlight. Today there are no clear indications for the removal of moles that do not bother; it is necessary to remove nevi that have changed externally, interfere physically (for example, constantly in contact with the edge of clothing) or aesthetically.
If you have damaged a mole, you should not panic, but you still need to see a doctor (dermatologist or oncologist). First, as with any damage to the skin, infection must be prevented. It is necessary to treat the wound with an antiseptic and, as necessary, use wound healing agents such as panthenol. Second, while trauma alone will not cause degeneration into melanoma or other skin cancer, the tendency to trauma and bleeding may indicate that the adverse process has already begun. And if we are talking about melanoma, then a timely visit to a doctor can save lives.
It is important to go not to a cosmetology clinic, and even more so not to a beauty salon, but to an institution where there is an oncodermatologist. Of course, any removal of a mole must be accompanied by its sending for histological examination. There are times when a disturbing “mole” was removed to a person in the salon without examining it under a microscope, and after a while he has metastases of a malignant tumor and it becomes clear that it was melanoma, but precious time has already been lost.
Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Surgeon of the Highest Category of the Atlas Medical Center
There are pigmented formations, they can be located at the level of the skin or rise above it, they are also called birthmarks – this is local pigmentation, an accumulation of melanocytes. They should not be touched unless they cause major cosmetic or aesthetic inconvenience. Another story is pigmented skin tumors, or nevi (these can include papillomas, keratomas, fibromas). If they rise above the level of the skin, this is an absolute indication for their removal.
Nevi, or, in the conventional sense, moles, are dangerous because they can degenerate into malignant skin tumors, the most dangerous of which is melanoma. If a person accidentally damaged a birthmark, then it is better to immediately consult a doctor. The global trend at the moment is that any neoplasm of the skin must be removed with subsequent analysis of this tissue. And an injured mole is primarily a road to infection. I must say that not only injuries and ultraviolet light, including in solariums, are dangerous, but also infrared (thermal) sun rays. There are infrared saunas – and they are dangerous too.
The number of moles is genetically determined and, of course, if there are two hundred of them, you do not need to remove everything. It is necessary to get rid of moles that increase, become inflamed or otherwise bother a person. In any case, the decision should be made by the doctor after a thorough examination.
It is believed that when removed with a laser, the tissue completely evaporates, and there is nothing to carry for histological examination – but in fact this is not the case. A thin laser beam can cut off the formation on the skin, like a scalpel; what is left on the skin can really evaporate; at the same time, oncological principles are followed so that nothing remains.
Text to help you understand how people with dyslexia read
In the “Bookmark” section, we talk about sites and online services – both useful and completely useless, but funny and amazing – which, in fact, should be added to your favorites or added to the RSS feed.
Dyslexia is a neurobiological feature in which it is often difficult for a person to recognize, read and write words correctly; in general, the list of symptoms is long and includes, for example, the inability to distinguish between right and left. And while it is still believed that this is a fictional star fever, which was promoted by Hollywood celebrities like Tom Cruise, it is a real problem that is faced by three to seven percent of the population.
On the website of the Association of Parents and Children with Dyslexia, a text has been posted , thanks to which you can feel how people with this feature perceive words in writing. You can read this text, but it will take much more time: letters jumping back and forth slow down perception at times. Perhaps the best way to explain what dyslexia is is still hard to come up with.