One of the manifestations of vital activity is the motor function,
providing the movement of the entire organism or its individual parts, allowing active interaction with the external environment. The final performer of any motor act is the contraction of striated and smooth muscles, which are innervated by the somatic and autonomic nervous systems, respectively. We will tell you about the syndromes of movement disorders in children .
Newborn baby, baby
A newborn child is a pallidary creature, most of whose responses are closed at the level of the visual hillock and pallidum. Subsequently, in the process of maturation of the structures located above, the inhibition of phylogenetically more ancient formations occurs and, as a consequence, the modification of the response reactions of the organism. At the same time, the new level of regulation is located above the old and subordinates it to itself. These classical concepts in neuropathology are supplemented with new data on the circulation of excitation in closed annular orbits.
Periods of psychomotor activity in children
In infants, depending on the level of integration, there are 3 periods of psychomotor activity:
1. Thalamopallidary (from birth to 4 months).
2. Striopallidal (from 4 to 10 months), in which there is a decrease in muscle tone and the development of purposeful movements.
3. The period of maturation of the higher cortical functions with the development of complex conditioned reflexes and speech (after 10 months).
Phases of development of children’s motor skills
This sequential morphofunctional development of the brain predetermines the phases of development of children’s motor skills:
1. Spontaneous physical activity (from 4 days of life to 2 months).
2. Monokinetic phase (from 2 to 5 months), characterized by independent movements of individual limbs.
3. Dromokinetic (from 5 to 12 months), in which movements receive a specific direction, but are not yet sure.
4. Kraticinetic (from 12 months), characterized by the transition to adult motor skills , improvement of coordination and normalization of tone.
Children’s motor skills, motor development in children
Children’s motor skills develop in an ascending line – from simple to more complex movements. In case of damage to various parts of the brain, the child may experience those reflex motor reactions that took place at the previous stages of development.