Data on the long-term effects of marijuana, unfortunately, are rare and difficult to determine. The studies that were undertaken focused on four body systems: respiratory, cardiovascular, immune, and reproductive.
Respiratory system. There is little reliable research on the long-term effects of cannabis smoking. The normal functioning of the lungs, apparently due to cannabis smoking, is changing, causing withdrawal from smoking. Cigarettes with marijuana contain more tar than cigarettes with tobacco. Cannabis resin contains more carcinogens than tobacco tar. This is especially dangerous when a marijuana smoker (trying to increase the effects of a drug) is deeply drawn out and holds smoke in his lungs for a long time. Unfortunately, long-term observations were not conducted. The difficulty in determining these effects is that cannabis smokers usually smoke and cigarettes, so it’s very difficult to separate the effects of those and others. However, the likelihood of incurable lung damage from smoking marijuana remains.
The cardiovascular system. The overwhelming majority of cardiovascular effects associated with cannabis smoking have been described earlier in this section. There is no reliable information that smoking marijuana leads to serious effects on the cardiovascular system of healthy people. Acute effects (such as rapid heartbeat) caused by smoking are likely to be dangerous for people with impaired cardiovascular conditions, such as abnormal heart function or atherosclerosis.
The immune system. Although some studies on this topic provide different conclusions, it is clear that cannabis does not have a significant effect on the immune system. However, cannabis can act as an immunosuppressive agent and lower the body’s resistance to certain bacteria and viruses. The mechanism by which a drug affects the immune system is not yet known.
Reproductive system. Studies with animals and humans made it possible to assume that marijuana has a significant effect on the reproductive system in both men and women. For example, the constant use of marijuana in men is associated with a decrease in the number of sperm and a change in its consistency. The possible effects of these fertility disorders are difficult to predict. Frequent drug use by women can cause the menstrual cycle without ovulation, when menstruation is not preceded by the release of an egg. In a situation with a woman, the effect of this type of disturbance on fertility is not known. Interventions in reproductive processes, at least in women, are unclear. However, minor changes are possible.
More likely to occur teratogenesis, that is, the occurrence of developmental abnormalities. The marijuana active reagents cross the placenta, and cannabinoids can leak into the fetus. These experiments with a person do not indicate the possibility of the consequences of congenital malformations. This does not mean that they can not appear. The use of marijuana by a pregnant woman is associated with the possibility of premature birth, insufficient fetal weight and a strong depletion of the mother. Sometimes there can be a tremor, fear and other manifestations of anxiety in a newborn child of a woman who used marijuana during pregnancy. Functional disorders of this kind of exposure are difficult to determine, partly because it is difficult to determine the duration of postpartum exposure, and cannabis use by pregnant women is usually combined with tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. A good advice would be to not use cannabis during pregnancy.
The sum of lasting effects. It turns out that most of the effects associated with marijuana are more acute than chronic, and that the long-term effects are reversible at the end of its long-term use. Although there may be exceptions. Smoking marijuana can be associated with various respiratory disorders, including cancer. Most of the negative effects are associated with increased doses and constant use, as evidenced by the majority of smokers. However, these figures are preliminary and require proof by more systematic and controlled studies.
Despite the fact that cannabis can cause various effects noted earlier, mostly smokers use marijuana in the hope of experiencing psychological effects, some of which are all, others are more individual. The psychological effects experienced by a marijuana smoker can be divided into three main ones: behavioral, cognitive and emotional.
Some effects of cannabis, described by people who use marijuana, are learned by them gradually. The first step is purely mechanical, during which the smoker learns to inhale smoke and retain it in the lungs for maximum perception and absorption. The second step will be learning to perceive effects, causing available cannabis. These effects can be both physiological and psychological. The final step is to identify the most enjoyable ones. This is confirmed by the fact that experienced smokers who are more sensitive to the effects of cannabis than beginners.