Experts from the World Health Organization recognize that their definition of drugs is very broad. For research and practical purposes, all substances falling under the category should be divided. Pharmacologists make their own classification, which are based on the basic properties of drugs, related to their clinical structure and methods of use. In this book, drugs are classified according to the following principles:
By origin, for example, opiates are produced from opium poppy grown on plantations. The composition of pure (non-synthetic) opiates includes substances such as morphine and codeine. Heroin, a semi-synthetic drug, belongs to the group of opiates. Since in this classification we are only interested in the source of the drug obtained, then one group will include drugs with different chemical effects.
According to the effects In one group will get drugs with similar effects on the body. For example, both marijuana and atropine cause increased heart rate and dry mouth. Therefore, marijuana can be called atropinopodobnym drug.
For therapeutic use Attention is paid to the fact to change what processes in the body this substance is used. For example, amphetamines are called appetite suppressants. It should be noted that when using drugs, their therapeutic effects may not be taken into account at all. When amphetamines are used for non-medical purposes, their excitatory effects are taken into account. Similarly, morphine is used in medicine as a powerful painkiller, but drug addicts take it because it causes euphoria.
Alcohol, for example, is called a depressant drug because it suppresses the central nervous system. In contrast, cocaine is a stimulant, as it has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system. This classification is not quite suitable for drugs that affect different organs. For example, cocaine, which stimulates the central nervous system, also has an anesthetic effect. Moreover, drugs that are very different in chemical structure and mode of action can affect one and the same part of the body.
Chemical structure For example, barbiturates (phenobarbital, amital, seconol and others) are synthetic substances derived from barbiturate acid and differing in substances reacting with it.
According to the mechanism of action. In principle, this classification is good, but the mechanism of action of some drugs is still unknown.
By name in slang given in a particular subculture or on the black market.
Of all known types of drugs, we are most interested in the so-called psychoactive drugs that have an effect on mood, consciousness and behavior. Psychoactive drugs occupy the main place in the book, because people mostly use them, and they often create serious problems. This book focuses primarily on non-medical use of such