Cannabis sativa (Cannabis sativa), better known as marijuana, is a cannabis plant growing almost all over the world. Cannabis plants are best known today as strong psychoactive substances, but for many years they have been harvested because of their fiber. Durable hemp fiber was used in the manufacture of ropes, clothing and ship gear. Also, for several centuries in many countries of the world, they were used for the purpose of misting the mind, while in the first third of our century in the United States they did not discover their psychoactive abilities. After that, the hemp plant began to collect more often due to its psychoactive effects.
The term “marijuana” comes from the Portuguese word mariguango, which translates as “intoxicating.” Both marijuana and hashish are derived from cannabis sativa. Marijuana is the upper part of the plant with leaves. Hashish is made from resin dust that is released by a hemp plant to protect it from the sun, heat, and to maintain fluid levels. Plants growing in warm climates emit more resin, which is a strong psychoactive agent.
This chapter begins with a historical overview of the origin and use of plants. It is followed by a section on the epidemiology of the use of marijuana. Then there is information about absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion; mechanisms of action; tolerance and dependence. Next comes the consideration of the medical and therapeutic use of marijuana. The last section of the chapter is devoted to the psychological, physiological and social effects of marijuana.